Breudwd Welsh Prose 1300-1425

TEI Header for BL Additional MS. 19,709

: 'British Library Additional 19,709: Electronic Edition' TEI header

: Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2AE 0117 987 6500

Principal Investigator: Peter Wynn Thomas

Transcribed and encoded by D. Mark Smith

Transcribed and encoded by Diana Luft

School of Welsh, Cardiff University Cardiff 2013

  • : London
  • : British Library
  • : Additional 19,709
  • : British Museum 14

This manuscript contains a copy of Ystoria Dared followed by Brut y Brenhinoedd, both incomplete.

Page Contents Hand
1r-7v Ystoria Dared, incomplete, beginning and end missing X92
1 gathering missing
8r-17v Brut y Brenhinoedd, incomplete X92
1 ?page missing
18r-19v Brut y Brenhinoedd, incomplete X92
1 ?page missing
20r-21v Brut y Brenhinoedd, incomplete X92
1 ?gathering missing
22A recto-84v Brut y Brenhinoedd, incomplete X92

The following texts were consulted during transcription.

  • Evans, J. Gwenogvryn and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1890. The Text of the Bruts from the Red Book of Hergest. Oxford: J.G. Evans.
  • Lewis, Henry. ed. 1942. Brut Dingestow. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
  • Owen, B. G. ed. 1951. Y fersiynau Cymraeg o Dares Phrygius (Ystorya Dared): eu tarddiad, eu nodweddion, a’u cydberthynas. M.A., Aberystwyth.

Supplied text in Ystoria Dared is from Evans and Rhŷs (1890). Supplied text in Brut y Brenhinoedd is from Lewis (1942).

There are two systems of foliation in this manuscript:

  • i: Top right corner of each verso, Arabic numerals, ?black ink, ?modern hand
  • ii: Bottom right corner of each verso, roman numerals, ?black ink ?modern hand

The editors have followed the first system of foliation as it is more complete than the second, many numbers of which have become faded or been cut off of the page. There are two pages numbered 22.

Catchwords are occasionally found in the bottom right hand corner of the page. Others may have been cut out during binding. Unless otherwise noted, all catch-words are in the hand of the main scribe. Examples may be seen at: 7v: y wneuthur, 15v: ar freinc (unclear), 21v: ystygedic o e (unclear), 28v: maent (encircled).

The manuscript is in very good condition with no tears, staining or fading. The lacunae in the manuscript seem to represent entire missing pages and gatherings. There is a lacuna in the text corresponding to one missing gathering after page 7v. There is a lacuna of one missing page of text after 17v, and again after 19v. There is a lacuna corresponding to one missing gathering after page 21v.

The text is written in a single column 28 lines to each page.

The manuscript is written in the late-fourteenth-century rounded textura hand of an unidentified scribe. J. Gwenogvryn Evans notes that this scribe also wrote NLW 3035 (1898-1910: 62). This scribe has been given the designation 'X92' by Daniel Huws. This designation has been used for the purposes of this transcription.

This scribe makes use of both regular and medial <a>. In the first five folios of the manuscript medial <a> is restricted to the beginning of sentences and phrases; thereafter the distribution of this form expands and is found also within words.

This scribe makes use of both regular and dotted <y>, though the undotted <y> is much more common. There seems to be no phonological trigger for the use of either variant.

The scribe writes ligatured <cc> <tt> and <ct> in such a way that they are almost indistinguishable from one another. Examples may be seen at:

  • <ector>: 2r.14, 2r.16, 2r.22
  • <a:ssa:ra:ccus>: 9v.7

It is almost impossible in this manuscript to distinguish between <v> and <ỽ>. We have distinguished two types of <v> and four types of <ỽ>. There is a round <ỽ> which is easily distinguished. Otherwise, characters with a visible tail pointing to the right are transcribed as <ỽ>. etc.

The difference between some of the capitals and small forms can be slight. This is especially so when the capital is simply a slightly larger version of the small form. Examples of such capitals are:

  • <K> 12r.5
  • <Y> 24r.11

The orthography of this scribe does not appear to differ substantially from expected forms.

The spelling of names shows some variation, which may reflect either a scribe's attempts to rationalise foreign elements or to make out unclear or otherwise variant original readings. Rather than burden names with ‘sic’ tags, the main variants are listed here.

The scribe's principal spellings are given here, together with the typical form of the name in Evans and Rhŷs (1890) given in brackets.

    Ystoria Dared
  • agressia (RBH gressia) 1v.18-19
  • alisconia (RBH lisconia) 1v.19
  • ampidrastus (RBH ampidracus) 1v.13
  • darstus (RBH darroscus) 1v.19
  • diomedius (RBH idomedes) 4v.23
  • drastia (RBH drasia) 1v.15-16
  • epitrofus (RBH epetroclus) 1v.19
  • eufrabus (RBH euffravus) 4r.13
  • illuxes (ulixes) 3v.16
  • melelaus (RBH menelaus) 4r.10
  • memnon (RBH meiryomen) 1v.18
  • menciades (RBH menriades) 2r.26-7
  • minonem (RBH aminon) 4r.12
  • paphiaconia (RBH babilaconia) 1v.17
  • proteselaus (RBH protosolaus) 2r.14
  • proteselaus (RBH pateselavs) 2v.16
  • telefeleus (RBH telephemis) 5v.18, 5v.19
  • vyrmidones (RBH virmidoes) 6v.2

The scribe's principal spellings are given here, together with the typical form of the name in Lewis (1942).

    Brut y Brenhinoedd
  • albanaccus (BD Albanactus) 17v.12
  • castell mynyd (BD Castell menyd Agned) 18r.8
  • kaswalaỽn (BD gaswallavn) 24v.7, 24v.20, 24v.20
  • cueda (BD Cuneda) 20v.6
  • kynarch (BD Kynuarch) 21r.4
  • chledric (BD Cheldric) 51v.27
  • gath (BD Gat) 18r.6
  • gveiryd adar weindaỽc (BD Gueiryd Adar Wenydyavc) 25v.10-11, 26r.12
  • morytan (BD Mavritan) 14r.4
  • olloryeu (BD Alloryeu) 13v.26
  • pemyr (BD Pemyr) 21r.19; pymyr 21r.20
  • pomperius (BD Pompeius) 25r.9
  • tỽtyneis (BD Totynyeis) 27v.28
  • waspasius (BD Vaspasianus) 27v.28, 28r.11
  • wydyr (BD Vydyr) 25v.23

The text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms.

  • macron for <n>: alba[n] 30r.6; vrenhi[n] 25v.8; Ru[n]n 18v.16; lundei[n] 30r.7; y[n] 30r.6
  • <9> for <us>: aganip[us] 20r.24; anaclet[us] 9v.3, 10r.18; brut[us] 8v.7, 9v.14, 10r.7 etc.; latin[us] 18r.6; Locrin[us] 17v.2; mercuri[us] 13r.22; rem[us]: 20v.25

The following commonly occuring elements may also be abbreviated.

  • <brenh> for <brenhin>: 18v.15, 20v.28
  • <dd> for <dafyd>: 18r.5

Punctuation consists of the punctus and the punctus elevatus.

Decoration consists of large decorated initials in red ink.

There are some marginalia in later hands in the manuscript which have not been included in the transcription:

  • 3r BM: '[…] Robert x Robert iix x x xx ii' (pen trials)
  • 9r LM.8-9: 'castor sparatuntas' (unclear)
  • 9r LM.15-16: 'avon akalon'
  • 11v BM: 'Totram Lind […]' (unclear; ?16th century hand)
  • 12r RM.13-14: 'ygnogen […]' (unclear)
  • 12r RM.16: illegible (?16th century hand)
  • 12r RM.21: 'huud' (unclear; 16th century hand)
  • 13r TM: 'yma' (16th century hand?)
  • 13r RM.2-3: 'ynys leogicia'
  • 13v LM.26-7: 'ruscan'
  • 13v BM: 'mynyd'
  • 14r RM.3: 'auon malyf'
  • 14r RM.10: 'corineus' (unclear)
  • 16v LM.3: 'ran' (unclear)
  • 17r RM.19: 'elias'
  • 17v LM.2: 'meibon'
  • 17v LM.11: 'humyr vrenhi[n]'
  • 17v LM.23: 'pryt esyllt'
  • 18r RM.4: 'd[afy]d p[ro]ffvyt'
  • 18r RM.9: 'xx meib efraỽc'
  • 18r RM.15: 'merchet efraỽc'
  • 18r RM.26: 'lleon'
  • 18v LM.2: 'selyf ap d[afy]d'
  • 19r RM.3: 'Merchet llyr'
  • 19v LM.10: 'clod'
  • 20r RM.27: 'eua'
  • 20v LM.5: 'Margan'
  • 20v LM.8: 'chuneda'
  • 20v LM.24: 'rufein'
  • 20v BM: 'glaỽ gvaet'
  • 21r RM.16: 'pump ran yr ynys'
  • 22Av LM.11: 'aberth'
  • 22Br LM.26: 'afarwy yn anvon y lly[…]'
  • 24v LM.12: 'atteb'
  • 24v LM.27: 'teyrnget'
  • 25v LM.3: 'iessu'
  • 25v LM.14: 'gloyỽ'
  • 27r RM.17: 'kaer loyv'
  • 27r TM: 'a iessu grist' (unclear)
  • 27r BM: '[…] dauid ynysgrifeny kyn kaer' (unclear)
  • 27v LM.5: 'peder ebostol'
  • 28r RM.3: 'exon'
  • 28r RM.23: 'molyant gỽeiryd'
  • 29v RM.6: 'ffynhawn' (16th century hand)
  • 29v LM.9: 'bedyd lles'

Information on the dating and hand of this manuscript is based on the following authorities:

  • Evans, J. Gwenogvryn. 1898-1910. British Museum MS. 14. Report on manuscripts in the Welsh Language 2. London: HMSO. 951-2.
  • Huws, Daniel. 2000. Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff and Aberystwyth: University of Wales Press and the National Library of Wales.
  • Huws, Daniel. A Repertory of Welsh Manuscripts and Scribes. draft.

The Welsh Prose 1350-1425 website is the product of an AHRC funded research project undertaken by staff at the School of Welsh, Cardiff University from 2004 through 2007 called Corff Electronig o Ryddiaith Cymraeg Canol. The aim of this project was to produce machine-readable editions of all the medieval Welsh prose texts which have been preserved in manuscripts dating from c.1350 to c.1425.

The project is a continuation and a development of two previous projects funded by the University of Wales which transcribed the Welsh prose in manuscripts dated to c.1250-c.1350.

The intention is to give scholars access not only to texts that have hitherto remained unedited but also to the different versions of texts that have been the subject of critical editions.

Certain decorative features have been encoded: these may trigger further study of the original manuscripts. Primarily, however, the resource provides detail which it is hoped will further the study of the language and literature of the period.

In producing this edition, we have attempted to fulfil two different and often non-complementary if not opposing goals: to present a minimally edited edition of the text, and to represent as many visual features of the manuscript as possible.

Visual features of the text such as layout, and rubrication may prove to be as essential in textual interpretation as features such as punctuation, letter forms, capitalisation and word division, which are more usually invoked by scholars in the field.

The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his audience, or patron used it. Where the scribe's orthography seems to merit particular attention, an editorial gloss has been added to indicate what we believe to have been the target form.

In some places, especially where the manuscript is damaged, we have supplied text. This serves the two-fold purpose of presenting a complete text and, perhaps more importantly, of indicating the size of the damaged area.

In order to make editorial intervention as transparent as possible, supplied text is clearly marked off from the manuscript text by a different font. Also in the spirit of editorial transparency, we have wherever possible used published editions for supplied text. Text supplied from published editions may suffer from obvious errors or significant differences in orthography from the manuscript text. We have refrained from imposing our own editorial actions on such features.

The transcription of this manuscript, as well as the information in this TEI header, is based on the microfilm reproduction of the manuscript produced by the British Library in 2004. As we have not checked the transcription against the original, information on the scribal hands, foliation, accompanying materials, colour scheme and ornamentation should be treated as provisional.

  • 28-Jan-2011 DL: edited TEI header
  • 14-Aug-2007 PWT: edited TEI header
  • 31-Jan-2007 – 2-Feb-2007 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
  • 8-Dec-2006 DL: converted Word files with shortcuts into XML files and corrected them
  • 23-May-2005 – 7-Jun-2005 DL: checked DMS's corrections of folios 1r-30r against microfilm
  • 23-May-2005 – 7-Jun-2005 DL: corrected electronic transcription of folios 1r-30r
  • 24-May-2005 – 27-Jun-2005 DMS: checked DL's and DMS's corrections of folios 30v-84r against microfilm
  • 24-May-2005 – 27-Jun-2005 DMS: corrected electronic transcription of folios 30v-84r
  • 23-May-2005 – 30-Jun-2005 DMS: checked DL's transcript of folios 1r-30r against prints
  • 20-May-2005 – 27-Jun-2005 DL: checked DMS's transcript of folios 30v-42v, 63r-84r against prints
  • 20-May-2005 – 1-Jun-2005 DL: checked DMS's transcript of folios 43r-62v against prints
  • 19-May-2005 – 29-Jun-2005 DL: transcribed folios 1r-30r with shortcuts
  • 16-May-2005 – 27-Jun-2005 DMS: transcribed folios 30v-84r with shortcuts

The material has been transcribed separately.