Breudwd Welsh Prose 1300-1425

TEI Header for NLW MS. Peniarth 12 part ii

: 'Peniarth 12 part ii: An Electronic Edition' TEI header

: Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2AE 0117 987 6500

Principal Investigator: Peter Wynn Thomas

Transcribed and encoded by D. Mark Smith

Transcribed and encoded by Diana Luft

School of Welsh, Cardiff University Cardiff 2013

  • : Aberystwyth
  • : National Library of Wales
  • : Peniarth 12 part ii
  • : Hengwrt 202

Peniarth 12 is a composite manuscript in four parts, which was put together by Hugh Evans in about 1582. It is composed of paper quires joined together, with the addition of two vellum quires. An analysis of the reasons for the compilation of this manuscript may be found in O'Rourke (2003). Only part ii, containing the pages of the manuscript dating from the period covered by the project, has been transcribed. This contains two quires missing from Llanstephan 27 which belong between folios 20 and 21 of that manuscript. As a full description of the manuscript is outside of the scope of this project, only the pages containing the fourteenth-century text will be discussed here.

Page Contents Hand
1-11 Elucidarium in English, incomplete 2nd half of 15th cent.
12-79 (39r-58v) Ystoria Lucidar, wanting beginning and end Hywel Fychan
80-81 fragment of a Welsh catechism 16th-17th cent.
82-87 fragment of a missal, Sarum use 1st half of 15th cent.

The following text was consulted during transcription:

  • Jones, John Morris and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1894. Hystoria Lucidar. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr Agkyr Llandewivrevi. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 3-76.

Pages are numbered from 39r-58v, following the numbering of Peniarth 12.

Catchwords are occasionally found in the bottom right hand corner of the page. Others may have been cut out later as a result of the process of binding. All catchwords are in the hand of the main scribe unless otherwise noted. Examples may be seen at pages 48v: dunt and 58v: Owi

The manuscript is in good condition, and legible throughout.

The text is written in a single column of 27 lines to each page.

The manuscript is written in the late-fourteenth-century rounded textura hand of Hywel Fychan. This scribe was also responsible for penning Peniarth 11 which contains a copy of Ystoriau Seint Greal, Philadelphia 8680 which contains a copy of Ystoria Dared and Brut y Brenhinoedd, Oxford Jesus College 57 which contains a copy of Llyfr Blegywryd, parts of the Red Book of Hergest (Oxford Jesus College 111), and the other manuscripts which comprise the Red Book of Talgarth (Llanstephan 27 and pages 101-112 of Cardiff 3.242).
‘Hywel Fychan’

The script is characterised by a number of letter forms which are either unique or may be difficult to interpret. At times <o> and <y> are almost indistinguishable from one another, e.g. in <chỽfent> (112v.5).

At times <v> and <y> may also be almost indistinguishable from one another, <ỽrth> (104r.29).

Hywel makes use of both regular and medial <a>. The medial <a> often serves almost as a capital, and is commonly found at the beginning of names and clauses.

Though words are separated by clearly distinguishable spaces throughout most of the manuscript, in some places it is not clear whether items are to be taken to represent one word or two.

The orthography of this scribe does not appear to differ substantially from expected forms.

The text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms.

  • macron for <n>: ky[n]neu 55v.20; da[n]ned 49v.13; darestỽ[n]g 52v.17; diffla[n]na 53r.23; ge[n]nyt 58r.13; hỽ[n]nỽ 54r.7; ohonu[n]t 50r.27, 57v.20; py[n]gkeu 50v.14; ra[n]gei 58r.9; ta[n]neu 57r.27

Hywel also abbreviates the following commonly occurring words:

  • <d[iscipulus]>: 39r.3, 39r.11, 39r.22, etc.
  • <M[agister]>: 39r.4, 39r.14, 39r.24, etc.

Punctuation consists of the punctus and the punctus elevatus.

The decoration consists of large decorated initials in red ink, as well as rubrication.

In some places where there are coloured letters, the scribe has indicated what the letter should be, and this smaller form appears behind the initial. An example is d[iscipulus] 108.23.

There are some marginalia in later hands in the manuscript which have not been included in the transcription:

  • 39r TM: illegible
  • 43r RM.7-8: 'dechreuol y varn'
  • 12-13: 'brath yr eneneid'
  • 43v LM.15: illegible
  • 47r RM.3-4: illegible
  • 11-12: illegible
  • 48v LM.10-11: 'purgatorius purdan'
  • 50v LM.6: 'poene uffern'
  • 51v LM.2: 'Abraham'
  • 55r RM.29: 'finis angli'
  • 57r BM: 'da yw'

The manuscript was produced in Wales at the end of the fourteenth or the beginning of the fifteenth century (Huws: 2000: 60).

This manuscript, which belongs with Llanstephan 27 (The Red Book of Talgarth), was probably produced around the turn of the fifteenth century by the scribe Hywel Fychan at the behest of Rhys ap Tomas, whose name is found in five Latin prayers in that manuscript. More detail may be found in the TEI header for Llanstephan 27 on this site.

At some point these two quires from Ystoria Lucidar became detached from their original manuscript context, Llanstephan 27 (The Red Book of Talgarth), and were bound with Peniarth 12, the other texts of which were probably written around it in order to produce a complete text of the Elucidarium (O’Rourke 2003).

Peniarth 12 was assembled sometime in the 1580s by Hugh Evans, probably in Denbighshire. Evans included not only fragments of other manuscripts which he had acquired but also quires in his own hand. O’Rourke (2003: 54) has identified this Hugh Evans with a person of that name who graduated from Brasenose College Oxford in 1553, went on to become dean of St Asaph in 1560, and then either rector of Cerrig-y-Drudion or vicar of Henllan, Denbighshire.

Quire 22 from Peniarth 4 (the White Book of Rhydderch), which contains collections of proverbs and other wisdom texts was bound immediately after the quires in Hywel Fychan’s hand in Peniarth 12 at a later date by someone who did not understand Welsh; this quire has now been returned to its original place (O’Rourke 2003: 55). See the TEI header for Peniarth 4 for more information on Quire 22.

Peniarth 12 was acquired by Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt (1592-1667). It is not known from where Vaughan obtained most of his manuscripts, but according to a story in the writings of Edward Lhuyd he inherited those in the possession of John Jones of Gellilyfdy on Jones's death about 1658 (Tibbott 1943: iv). The Hengwrt manuscripts were catalogued in 1658 by William Maurice of Cefnybraich, Llansilin (Jones 1943: xvi). The manuscript was bequeathed by Sir Robert Williames Vaughan (d. 1859), the last baronet of Hengwrt, to his friend William Watkin Edward Wynne (1801-1880) of Peniarth in 1859, along with the rest of the Hengwrt collection (Tibbott 1943: viii).

The Hengwrt catalogue was revised first by Aneurin Owen (d. 1851) and then by William Watkin Wynne. This catalogue was published in Archaeologia Cambrensis 1869-1871 (Jones 1943: xv). The manuscript was catalogued and re-numbered by J. Gwenogvryn Evans when he examined the collection for the Historical Manuscripts Commission along with the rest of the Peniarth manuscripts while it was in the possession of W.W.E. Wynne’s son, William Robert Maurice Wynne (d. 1909).

The Peniarth collection was secured for the nascent National Library of Wales by Sir John Williams who, in 1904, paid the Wynne brothers a sum to ensure the reversion of the collection to the Library upon their deaths. Along with the rest of the collection, the manuscript passed to the Library in 1909 (Tibbott 1943: viii).

Information on the dating and hand of this manuscript is based on the following authorities:

  • Evans, J. Gwenogvryn. 1898-1910. Peniarth 12. Report on Manuscripts in the Welsh Language 1. London: HMSO. 321-2
  • Huws, Daniel. 2000. Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff and Aberystwyth: University of Wales Press and the National Library of Wales.
  • Huws, Daniel. A Repertory of Welsh Manuscripts and Scribes. draft.
  • Jones, E. D. 1943. Old Catalogues of the Hengwrt Manuscripts. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales. xv-xxiii.
  • Marx, William. 2000. An Abbreviated Middle English Prose Translation of the Elucidarius. Leeds Studies in English 30. 1-51.
  • O’Rourke, Jason. 2003. English and Latin texts in Welsh contexts: Reflections of a Multilingual Society in National Library of Wales MS. Peniarth 12. Yearbook of English Studies 33. 53-63.
  • Phillimore, Egerton. 1888. An Unpublished Welsh Fragment. Y Cymmrodor 9. 364-5.
  • Tibbot, Gildas. 1943. A Brief History of the Hengwrt-Peniarth Collection. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales. i-xiv

The Welsh Prose 1350-1425 website is the product of an AHRC funded research project undertaken by staff at the School of Welsh, Cardiff University from 2004 through 2007 called Corff Electronig o Ryddiaith Cymraeg Canol. The aim of this project was to produce machine-readable editions of all the medieval Welsh prose texts which have been preserved in manuscripts dating from c.1350 to c.1425.

The project is a continuation and a development of two previous projects funded by the University of Wales which transcribed the Welsh prose in manuscripts dated to c.1250-c.1350.

The intention is to give scholars access not only to texts that have hitherto remained unedited but also to the different versions of texts that have been the subject of critical editions.

Certain decorative features have been encoded: these may trigger further study of the original manuscripts. Primarily, however, the resource provides detail which it is hoped will further the study of the language and literature of the period.

In producing this edition, we have attempted to fulfil two different and often non-complementary if not opposing goals: to present a minimally edited edition of the text, and to represent as many visual features of the manuscript as possible.

Visual features of the text such as layout, and rubrication may prove to be as essential in textual interpretation as features such as punctuation, letter forms, capitalisation and word division, which are more usually invoked by scholars in the field.

The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his audience, or patron used it. Where the scribe's orthography seems to merit particular attention, an editorial gloss has been added to indicate what we believe to have been the target form.

In some places, especially where the manuscript is damaged, we have supplied text. This serves the two-fold purpose of presenting a complete text and, perhaps more importantly, of indicating the size of the damaged area.

In order to make editorial intervention as transparent as possible, supplied text is clearly marked off from the manuscript text by a different font. Also in the spirit of editorial transparency, we have wherever possible used published editions for supplied text. Text supplied from published editions may suffer from obvious errors or significant differences in orthography from the manuscript text. We have refrained from imposing our own editorial actions on such features.

The transcription of this manuscript, as well as the information in this TEI header, is based on the microfilm reproduction of the manuscript produced by the National Library of Wales in 1993. As the editors have not checked the transcription against the original, information on the scribal hands, foliation, accompanying materials, colour scheme and ornamentation should be treated as provisional.

  • 26-Mar-2011 DL: edited TEI header
  • 15-Aug-2007 PWT: edited TEI header
  • 16-Nov-2006 – 21-Feb-2007 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
  • 27-Oct-2006 DL: converted Word files with shortcuts into XML files and corrected them
  • 6-Feb-2006 – 8-Feb-2006 DL: corrected electronic transcription of pages 98-116
  • 2-Feb-2006 – 8-Feb-2006 DMS: corrected electronic transcription of pages 77-97
  • 3-Feb-2006 – 7-Feb-2006 DMS: checked DL's transcript of pages 98-116 against prints
  • 1-Feb-2006 – 6-Feb-2006 DL: checked DMS's transcript of pages 77-97 against prints
  • 31-Jan-2006 – 3-Feb-2006 DL: transcribed pages 98-116 with shortcuts
  • 31-Jan-2006 – 2-Feb-2006 DMS: transcribed folios 1-16 with shortcuts

The material has been transcribed separately.