Breudwd Welsh Prose 1300-1425

TEI Header for NLW MS. Peniarth 19

: 'Peniarth 19: An Electronic Edition' TEI header

: Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2AE 0117 987 6500

Principal Investigator: Peter Wynn Thomas

Transcribed and encoded by D. Mark Smith

Transcribed and encoded by Diana Luft

School of Welsh, Cardiff University Cardiff 2013

  • : Aberystwyth
  • : National Library of Wales
  • : Peniarth 19
  • : Hengwrt 15

The manuscript contains a series of historical texts – Ystoria Dared, Brut y Brenhinoedd, Brut y Tywysogion, and Brut y Saeson – which trace the history of Britain from its beginnings in the aftermath of the Trojan wars, to the early years of the Saxon kingdoms. The texts are substantially the same as those found in the Red Book of Hergest. J. Gwenogvryn Evans describes it as a transcription of that manuscript. Many of the pages have been badly stained with gall and hence could not be transcribed.

Page Columns Contents Hand
i-iii blank
iv r Hengwrt designation modern hand
iv v blank
v r bookplate
v v Latin printed text used in binding
vi r note J. Gwenogvryn Evans
vi v blank
vii r notes on contents J. Gwenogvryn Evans
vii v blank
viii r notes on contents J. Gwenogvryn Evans
viii v blank
1r-1v fragment of Ystoria Dared; not transcribed later hand
2r-17r 5-66 Ystoria Dared X91
17v-39v 67-156 Brut y Brenhinoedd X91
157-160 one page missing
40r-47v 161-192 Brut y Brenhinoedd X91
193-196 one page missing
48r-77r 197-314 Brut y Brenhinoedd X91
77v 315-316 Brut y Brenhinoedd, not transcribed, poor condition X91
317-356 five pages missing
78r-99r 357-441 Brut y Brenhinoedd X91
99r 442 Note, 1635 Jones
99v-151v 443-652 Brut y Tywysogion X91
653-660 two pages missing
152r-153r 661-665 Brut y Tywysogion X91
153r-155v 665-676 Brut y Saeson X91
end Latin printed text used in binding

The following texts were consulted during the transcription:

  • Evans, J. Gwenogvryn and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1890. The Text of the Bruts from the Red Book of Hergest. Oxford: J.G. Evans.
  • Jones, Thomas. ed. 1955. Brut y Tywysogyon or The Chronicle of the Princes: Red Book of Hergest Version. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
  • Lewis, Henry. ed. 1942. Brut Dingestow. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Supplied text in Ystoria Dared, Brut y Brenhinoedd, and Brut y Saeson has been taken from Evans and Rhŷs (1890). Supplied text in Brut y Tywysogion has been drawn from Jones (1955).

Foliation is found in the top right corner of each recto page, in black ink in a later hand. Columns are also numbered in a later hand, perhaps that of J. Gwenogvryn Evans. The numbering of the columns reflects the missing folios, while the page numbering ignores them. The page numbering is incorrect after folio 59, as the person responsible for it has skipped here from 59 back to 50. In the interests of clarity, the editors have corrected this in the present edition.

Catchwords are occasionally found in the bottom right hand corner of the page. Some catchwords may have been cut out later as a result of the process of binding. All catchwords are in the hand of the scribe unless otherwise noted. An example may be seen at: 2r: y wreig

Many of the pages have been badly stained with gall and hence could not be transcribed.

The text is written in two columns of 35 lines to each page.

The manuscript is written in the early fifteenth century rounded textura hand of the scribe of the Llyfr Teg (Peniarth 32), so called for the regularity and legibility of his writing. This scribe has been given the designation 'X91' by Daniel Huws. This designation has been used for the purposes of this transcription. In addition to Peniarth 32, which contains a copy of the legal text Llyfr Iorwerth as well as a collection of shorter texts in Welsh and Latin, this scribe was responsible for penning parts of the Red Book of Hergest (Oxford Jesus College 111); Peniarth 190 which contains a copy of the religious texts Ystoria Lucidar, Ymborth yr Enaid, and Penityas; and Llanstephan 4 which contains a collection of short texts including Buchedd Dewi, Buchedd Beuno, Breuddwyd Pawl, Purdan Padrig, Claddedigaeth Arthur, and Chwedlau Odo.

This scribe uses both regular and medial <a>. The medial <a> often serves almost as a capital, and is commonly found at the beginning of nouns and clauses.

Though words are separated by clearly distinguishable spaces throughout most of the manuscript, in some places it is not clear whether items are to be taken to represent one word or two.

The orthography of this scribe does not appear to differ substantially from expected forms.

The text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms.

  • macron for <n>: agamemno[n] 47.18, 48.9, 48.29; anuo[n] 43.25; bron[n] 63.19; ky[n]greir 41.7; ganthu[n]t 28.16; ge[n]nadeu 35.24, 41.6, 41.18 etc.
  • macron for <m>: agamemnon 32.8, 35.2, 36.13; chry[m]mu 37.35; esonia[m] 8.31, 10.3, 11.29; y[m]ma 469.14; 502.11
  • <’> for <er>: alexand[er] 11.23, 12.28, 15.13; amh[er]aỽdyr 610.35
  • <’> for <yr>: amheraỽd[yr] 161.12; vrỽyd[yr] 50.30; gadwalaỽd[yr] 548.30
  • <i> above the letter for <ri>: c[ri]st 447.5, 447.10, 447.19; p[ri]af 9.27, 10.13, 35.35
  • <o> above the letter for <ro>: g[ro]ec 33.6, 45.1, 75.15
  • <9> for <ur>: gỽneuth[ur] 24.9, 60.8, 483.21
  • <9> for <ry>: b[ry]dein: 156.14
  • <9> for <us>: amphimac[us] 59.28, 59.31; ansynhỽyr[us] 521.20; antilog[us] 53.3; antip[us] 36.18; brut[us] 71.11, 72.31; vaỽrvryd[us] 58.19 etc.
  • <3> for <ed> 361.17

This scribe also abbreviates certain commonly occurring names and words:

  • <achel[arwy]>: 27.22, 38.30, 38.35 etc.
  • <d[auy]d>: 553.12, 568.2, 571.16, etc.
  • <vlỽyd[yn]>: 629.35, 634.22
  • <vrenh[in]>: 476.25, 499.13, 505.22 etc.
  • <gruff[u]d>: 513.4, 513.32, 514.31, etc.
  • <Jeu[an]>: 610.9
  • <llywel[yn]>: 616.27, 627.33, 628.16, etc.
  • <mared[ud]>: 528.13
  • <or[uc]>: 133.31, 140.7. 475.19 etc.
  • <tro[ea]>: 75.27, 25.32

Punctuation in this hand consists of the punctus.

The decoration consists in the main of large decorated initials in red and green ink, as well as lively line-drawings in the bottom margins of some pages. Examples of line-drawings may be seen in the margins at:

  • 165.BM: hand
  • 190 BM: hand
  • 206 BM: hand
  • 241 BM: hand
  • 287 BM: hand
  • 402.TM: ?dog

In some places the scribe or decorator has drawn pictures, often of fish or human faces, as part of the decorated letters found at the tops of lines. An example of a fish incorporated into a <D> may be seen at 254.1.

There are a few marginalia in the scribe's hand; these have not been included in the transcription:

  • 293.LM.10: 'sere[n]'
  • 308.LM.24: 'a[n]n[…]'
  • 590 RM.33: 'antropas' (crossed out)

Other marginalia which have not been included in the transcription are in later hands:

  • 166.RM.9-13, BM
  • 168.RM.11
  • 170.RM.15-17
  • 229-30.BM
  • 231.RM.11
  • 243.RM.29-35
  • 265-6.TM
  • 295.LM.22
  • 402.RM.30-33
  • 403-4.TM
  • 414.RM.4-6
  • 415.TM
  • 442: note in the hand of John Jones Gellilyfdy (see Accompanying materials above)
  • 459 LM.9: '1030'
  • 463 LM.14-16: 'Gwilim bastart 1066'
  • 474 RM.19: 'farw' (unclear)
  • 579 LM.14-19: illegible
  • 579 LM.27-29: 'morgan vab cradawc vab Jestin […] vorgan' (unclear)
  • 580 TM: illegible
  • 593 TM: illegible
  • 596 TM: illegible
  • 627-628 TM: 'lln ap Jorwerth ap Jos a ffamvro'
  • 637 RM.21-22: 'castell machell y'
  • 639 LM. 18-21: illegible
  • 650 RM.10: '1260'
  • 577 RM.33: greek delta in a box?
  • 585 RM.21: nota mark
  • 495 BM: 'brem' (unclear)

Notes in a number of modern hands precede the manuscript and are bound with it:

  • i-iii: blank
  • iv r: note giving the Hengwrt designation 15
  • iv v: blank
  • v r: Bookplate of R. Wmes. Vaughan, Hengwrt
  • v v: Latin printed text used in binding
  • vi r: note in the hand of J. Gwenogvryn Evans stating that he has sent the manuscript on the 11.18 Great Western Railway via Salop and Llandovey Junction, having insured it for £50.
  • vi v: blank
  • vii r: notes on the contents of the manuscript in the hand of J. Gwenogvryn Evans
  • vii v: blank
  • viii r: further notes on the contents of the manuscript in the hand of J. Gwenogvryn Evans
  • viii v: blank
  • 1r-1v: the first page of the manuscript has been lost and the text has been added in by a later (?16th century) hand (not transcribed)
  • 99r, col. 442: A note in the hand of John Jones of Gellilyvdy which reads: 'Brut Brenhined ynis Brydein o vrutus y brenin cyntaf or Brytanniaid hyt at Gadwaladyr fab Gadwalaun, a draetwyd hyt hyt o honno belac y treutir o vryd tuyssogion Cymru o amser Cadwaladyr ucod hyt ar lywelyn ap Gruffud ap lywelyn y tuysoc diwaeta ar Cymru. John Jones. 1635.' (Jones's subpunction could not be reproduced here.)
  • end: pages from a printed Latin text used in the binding bearing the headwords 'De Judiciis' and 'De adulteriis'

The manuscript was produced at the end of the fourteenth or the beginning of the fifteenth century in Wales (Huws 2000: 60). The scribe who produced this manuscript was active around 1404, for a chronicle in the hand of his collaborator in Peniarth 32 was ostensibly written in that year. See Luft (2010) for that chronicle. His work on the Red Book of Hergest (Oxford Jesus College 111 ), which was produced for Hopcyn ap Tomas of Ynystawe (actually Ynysforgan), demonstrates that he was active in south-eastern Wales.

Peniarth 19 was acquired by Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt (1592-1667). It is not known how Vaughan obtained most of his manuscripts, but according to a story in the writings of Edward Lhuyd he inherited those in the possession of John Jones of Gellilyfdy on Jones's death about 1658 (Tibbott 1943: iv). The Hengwrt manuscripts were catalogued in 1658 by William Maurice of Cefnybraich, Llansilin (Jones 1943: xvi). The manuscript was bequeathed by Sir Robert Williames Vaughan (d. 1859), the last baronet of Hengwrt, to his friend William Watkin Edward Wynne (1801-1880) of Peniarth in 1859, along with the rest of the Hengwrt collection (Tibbott 1943: viii).

The Hengwrt catalogue was revised by Aneurin Owen (d. 1851), and then by William Watkin Wynne. This catalogue was published in Archaeologia Cambrensis 1869-1871 (Jones 1943: xv). It was catalogued and re-numbered by J. Gwenogvryn Evans when he examined the collection for the Historical Manuscripts Commission along with the rest of the Peniarth manuscripts, while they were in the possession of W.W.E. Wynne’s son, William Robert Maurice Wynne (d. 1909).

The Peniarth collection was secured for the nascent National Library of Wales by Sir John Williams who, in 1904, paid the Wynne brothers a sum to ensure the reversion of the collection to the Library upon the death of both brothers. Along with the rest of the collection, the manuscript passed to the Library in 1909 (Tibbott 1943: viii).

Information on the dating and hand of this manuscript is based on the following authorities:

  • Evans, J. Gwenogvryn. 1898-1910. Peniarth 19. Report on Manuscripts in the Welsh Language 1. London: HMSO. 321-2..
  • Huws, Daniel. 2000. Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff and Aberystwyth: University of Wales Press and the National Library of Wales.
  • Huws, Daniel. A Repertory of Welsh Manuscripts and Scribes. draft.
  • Jones, E. D. 1943. Old Catalogues of the Hengwrt Manuscripts. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales. xv-xxiii.
  • Luft, Diana. 2010. The Peniarth 32 Latin Chronicle. Studia Celtica 44. 47-70.
  • Tibbot, Gildas. 1943. A Brief History of the Hengwrt-Peniarth Collection. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales. i-xiv

The Welsh Prose 1350-1425 website is the product of an AHRC funded research project undertaken by staff at the School of Welsh, Cardiff University from 2004 through 2007 called Corff Electronig o Ryddiaith Cymraeg Canol. The aim of this project was to produce machine-readable editions of all the medieval Welsh prose texts which have been preserved in manuscripts dating from c.1350 to c.1425.

The project is a continuation and a development of two previous projects funded by the University of Wales which transcribed the Welsh prose in manuscripts dated to c.1250-c.1350.

The intention is to give scholars access not only to texts that have hitherto remained unedited but also to the different versions of texts that have been the subject of critical editions.

Certain decorative features have been encoded: these may trigger further study of the original manuscripts. Primarily, however, the resource provides detail which it is hoped will further the study of the language and literature of the period.

In producing this edition, we have attempted to fulfil two different and often non-complementary if not opposing goals: to present a minimally edited edition of the text, and to represent as many visual features of the manuscript as possible.

Visual features of the text such as layout, and rubrication may prove to be as essential in textual interpretation as features such as punctuation, letter forms, capitalisation and word division, which are more usually invoked by scholars in the field.

The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his audience, or patron used it. Where the scribe's orthography seems to merit particular attention, an editorial gloss has been added to indicate what we believe to have been the target form.

In some places, especially where the manuscript is damaged, we have supplied text. This serves the two-fold purpose of presenting a complete text and, perhaps more importantly, of indicating the size of the damaged area.

In order to make editorial intervention as transparent as possible, supplied text is clearly marked off from the manuscript text by a different font. Also in the spirit of editorial transparency, we have wherever possible used published editions for supplied text. Text supplied from published editions may suffer from obvious errors or significant differences in orthography from the manuscript text. We have refrained from imposing our own editorial actions on such features.

The transcription of this manuscript, as well as the information in this TEI header, is based on the microfilm reproduction of the manuscript produced by the National Library of Wales in 1994. As the editors have not checked the transcription against the original, information on the scribal hands, foliation, accompanying materials, colour scheme and ornamentation should be treated as provisional.

  • 23-Feb-2011 DL: edited TEI header
  • 16-Aug-2007 PWT: edited TEI header
  • 26-Feb-2007 – 9-Mar-2007 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
  • 27-Oct-2006 DL: converted Word files with shortcuts into XML files and corrected them
  • 27-Feb-2006 – 6-Apr-2006 DL: corrected electronic transcription of folios 2r-17r, 99v-155v
  • 27-Feb-2006 – 25-Apr-2006 DMS: corrected electronic transcription of folios 17v-99r
  • 24-Feb-2006 – 5-Apr-2006 DMS: checked DL's transcript of folios 2r-17r, 99v-155v against prints
  • 22-Feb-2006 – 4-Apr-2006 DL: checked DMS's transcript of folios 17v-99r against prints
  • 21-Feb-2006 – 3-Apr-2006 DL: transcribed folios 2r-17r, 99v-155v with shortcuts
  • 21-Feb-2006 – 3-Apr-2006 DMS: transcribed folios 17v-99r with shortcuts

The material has been transcribed separately.