Breudwd Welsh Prose 1300-1425

TEI Header for NLW MS. Peniarth 190

: Peniarth 190: Golygiad Electronig. Ffeil flaen TEI

: Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2AE 0117 987 6500

Principal Investigator: Peter Wynn Thomas

Transcribed and encoded by D. Mark Smith

Transcribed and encoded by Diana Luft

School of Welsh, Cardiff University Cardiff 2013

  • : Aberystwyth
  • : National Library of Wales
  • : Peniarth 190
  • : Hengwrt 21

The manuscript contains copies of the religious texts Ystoria Lucidar, Ymborth yr Enaid, and Penityas.

Page Contents Hand
1-165 Ystoria Lucidar X91
166 blank
167-224 Ymborth yr Enaid X91
224-279 Penityas X91

The following texts were consulted during transcription:

  • Daniel, R. Iestyn. ed. 1995. Ymborth yr Enaid. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
  • Jones, John Morris and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1894. Hystoria Lucidar. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr Agkyr Llandewivrevi. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 3-76.
  • Jones, Thomas. ed. 1940. Penityas. BBCS 10. 124-5.
  • Williams, Ifor. ed. 1935, 1936. Penityas. BBCS 7. 370-9; 8. 134-40, 224-9.

Supplied text for Penityas is taken from Williams (1935, 1936).

Foliation is in a modern hand in the top right corner of each recto page. The editors have followed this foliation.

The manuscript is in good condition though some pages have faded.

The text is written in a single column, with 21 lines to each page.

The manuscript is written in the late-fourteenth- or early-fifteenth-century rounded textura hand of the scribe of Llyfr Teg (Peniarth 32), so called for the regularity and legibility of his writing. Daniel Huws has given this scribe the designation 'X91'. The editors have used this designation for the purposes of this edition. This scribe was also responsible for penning parts of the Red Book of Hergest (Oxford Jesus College 111); Peniarth 19 which contains a copy of the historical texts Ystoria Dared, Brut y Brenhinoedd, Brut y Tywysogion, and Brut y Saeson; the section of Peniarth 32 which contains the legal text Llyfr Iorwerth; and Llanstephan 4 which contains a collection of short texts including Buchedd Dewi, Buchedd Beuno, Breuddwyd Pawl, Purdan Padrig, Claddedigaeth Arthur, and Chwedlau Odo.

The scribe uses both regular and medial <a>. The medial <a> often serves almost as a capital, and is commonly found at the beginning of names and clauses.

The scribe uses dotted <y> but only in foreign or Biblical words and names, e.g. <ely>, <Messyas>, <moysen>, <symoneaeth>, <tyberiadis>, <ysais>.

The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his predecessors, or his patron used it.

The text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms. Examples are:

  • macron for <n>: a[n]gel 11.11, 12.19, 29.21, etc.; a[n]gheuaỽl 10.12; amge[n] 6.6; bren[n] 20.11; bron[n] 4.11, etc.
  • macron for <m>: ky[m]mer 168.14; dissy[m]mwth 217.1; gy[m]mun 219.2; Paha[m] 35.18; y[m]mragori 169.16 etc.
  • <i> above a letter for <ri>: antic[ri]st 125.5; g[ri]st 32.18, 45.21
  • <9> for <ur>: wneuth[ur] 31.1, 147.11, 205.14, etc.
  • <9> for <us>: anosparth[us] 49.18; anryded[us] 164.21, 184.18; dyled[us] 29.2; ebryvyg[us] 242.18; godinab[us] 260.14 etc.
  • <p> with a crossed tail for <per>: p[er]son 186.19, 194.11, 268.19
  • <’> for <re>: p[re]gethu 52.16

The scribe may also abbreviate the following commonly occurring names:

  • <d[auy]d>: 155.5
  • <D[iscipulus]>: 1.4, 1.10, 2.8, etc.
  • <M[agister]>: 1.8, 1.15, 2.1, etc.
  • <O[mega]>: 186.5, 216.9

Punctuation consists of the punctus and the punctus elevatus.

The decoration consists in the main of large decorated initials in red ink.

In some places where there are coloured initial letters, the scribe has indicated what the letter should be with a smaller letter and this smaller form appears in the left margin. Examples are:

  • <B>: 212.12
  • <P>: 234.9

The inside of the front cover contains a Gloddaeth Library bookplate. The number 93 has been written onto the bookplate in a modern hand identifying it within that collection.

The manuscript was produced at the end of the turn of the fifteenth century in Wales (Huws 2000: 60). The scribe who produced this manuscript was active around 1404, for a chronicle in his hand in Peniarth 32 was ostensibly written in that year. His work on the Red Book of Hergest (Oxford Jesus College 111 ), which was produced for Hopcyn ap Tomas of Ynystawe (actually Ynysforgan), demonstrates that he was active in south-eastern Wales.

Peniarth 190 was acquired by Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt (1592-1667). It is not known where Vaughan got most of his manuscripts, but according to a story in the writings of Edward Lhuyd (Tibbott 1943: iv) he inherited those in the possession of John Jones of Gellilyfdy on Jones's death about 1658. The Hengwrt manuscripts were catalogued in 1658 by William Maurice of Cefnybraich, Llansilin (Jones 1943: xvi). The manuscript was bequeathed by Sir Robert Williames Vaughan (d. 1859), the last baronet of Hengwrt, to his friend William Watkin Edward Wynne (1801-1880) of Peniarth in 1859, along with the rest of the Hengwrt collection (Tibbott 1943: viii).

The Hengwrt catalogue was revised by Aneurin Owen (d.1851), and then by William Watkin Wynne. This catalogue was published in Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1869-1871 (Jones 1943: xv). The manuscript was catalogued and re-numbered by J. Gwenogvryn Evans when he examined the collection for the Historical Manuscripts Commission along with the rest of the Peniarth manuscripts, while they were in the possession of W.W.E. Wynne’s son, William Robert Maurice Wynne (d.1909).

The Peniarth collection was secured for the nascent National Library of Wales by Sir John Williams who, in 1904, paid the Wynne brothers a sum to ensure the reversion of the collection to the Library upon the death of both brothers. Along with the rest of the collection, the manuscript passed to the Library in 1909 (Tibbott 1943: viii).

Information on the dating and hand of this manuscript is based on the following authorities:

  • Evans, J. Gwenogvryn (1898-1910). Peniarth 190. Report on manuscripts in the Welsh Language 1: 1017-8. London.
  • Huws, Daniel (2000). Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff.
  • Jones, E. D (1943). Old Catalogues of the Hengwrt Manuscripts. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1:xv-xxiii. Aberystwyth.
  • Tibbot, Gildas (1943). A Brief History of the Hengwrt-Peniarth Collection. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1: i-xiv. Aberystwyth.

The Welsh Prose 1350-1425 website is the product of an AHRC funded research project undertaken by staff at the School of Welsh, Cardiff University from 2004 through 2007 called Corff Electronig o Ryddiaith Cymraeg Canol. The aim of this project was to produce machine-readable editions of all the medieval Welsh prose texts which have been preserved in manuscripts dating from c.1350 to c.1425.

The project is a continuation and a development of two previous projects funded by the University of Wales which transcribed the Welsh prose in manuscripts dated to c.1250-c.1350.

The intention is to give scholars access not only to texts that have hitherto remained unedited but also to the different versions of texts that have been the subject of critical editions.

Certain decorative features have been encoded: these may trigger further study of the original manuscripts. Primarily, however, the resource provides detail which it is hoped will further the study of the language and literature of the period.

In producing this edition, we have attempted to fulfil two different and often non-complementary if not opposing goals: to present a minimally edited edition of the text, and to represent as many visual features of the manuscript as possible.

Visual features of the text such as layout, and rubrication may prove to be as essential in textual interpretation as features such as punctuation, letter forms, capitalisation and word division, which are more usually invoked by scholars in the field.

The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his audience, or patron used it. Where the scribe's orthography seems to merit particular attention, an editorial gloss has been added to indicate what we believe to have been the target form.

In some places, especially where the manuscript is damaged, we have supplied text. This serves the two-fold purpose of presenting a complete text and, perhaps more importantly, of indicating the size of the damaged area.

In order to make editorial intervention as transparent as possible, supplied text is clearly marked off from the manuscript text by a different font. Also in the spirit of editorial transparency, we have wherever possible used published editions for supplied text. Text supplied from published editions may suffer from obvious errors or significant differences in orthography from the manuscript text. We have refrained from imposing our own editorial actions on such features.

The transcription of this manuscript, as well as the information in this TEI header, is based on the microfilm reproduction of the manuscript produced by the National Library of Wales in 1996. As the editors have not checked the transcription against the original, information on the matters such as colour scheme and ornamentation should be treated as provisional.

  • 22-Mar-2011 DL: edited TEI header
  • 16-Aug-2007 PWT: edited TEI header
  • 16-Jan-2007 – 30-Jan-2007 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
  • 27-Oct-2006 DL: converted Word files with shortcuts into XML files and corrected them
  • 10-Apr-2006 – 25-Apr-2006 DL: corrected electronic transcription of folios 167-270
  • 7-Apr-2006 – 10-May-2006 DMS: corrected electronic transcription of folios 1-166
  • 6-Apr-2006 – 24-Apr-2006 DMS: checked DL’s transcript of folios 167-270 against prints
  • 5-Apr-2006 – 8-May-2006 DL: checked DMS’s transcript of folios 1-166 against prints
  • 4-Apr-2006 – 21-Apr-2006 DL: transcribed folios 167-270 with shortcuts
  • 4-Apr-2006 – 5-May-2006 DMS: transcribed folios 1-166 with shortcuts

The material has been transcribed separately.