Breudwd Welsh Prose 1300-1425

TEI Header for NLW MS. Peniarth 46

: 'Peniarth 46: Electronic Edition' TEI Header

: Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2AE 0117 987 6500

Principal Investigator: Peter Wynn Thomas

Transcribed and encoded by D. Mark Smith

Transcribed and encoded by Diana Luft

School of Welsh, Cardiff University Cardiff 2013

  • : Aberystwyth
  • : National Library of Wales
  • : Peniarth 46
  • : Hengwrt 27

The manuscript contains a copy of Brut y Brenhinoedd in the hand of the Anchorite of Llanddewi Brefi.

Daniel Huws (2000: 49) has suggested that this manuscript may originally have been meant to form a single volume along with NLW Peniarth 47 part i, which contains a copy of Ystoria Dared in the hand of the same scribe.

Many pages are missing from Peniarth 46, but these have been replaced with paper copies of the relevant sections from the text in the Dingestow Court manuscript (NLW MS. 5266B) in the hand of J. Gwenogvryn Evans, according to notes in the bottom margins of pages 80, 128 and 186. Evans used the same text to fill in gaps left by holes in the vellum at pages 135-140, 193-194, 207-208, and 211-224. Evans claimed that the text of NLW MS. Peniarth 46 actually agrees more fully with that of NLW MS. Peniarth 45 rather than the Dingestow Brut (p. 128, note in bottom margin).

Page Contents Hand
i r Note on the manuscript in the hand of W.R.M. Wynne W.R.M. Wynne
i v Note on the hand and date of the manuscript later hand
1-64 Brut y Brenhinoedd X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
65-80 Brut y Brenhinoedd J. Gwenogvryn Evans
81-112 Brut y Brenhinoedd X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
113-128 Brut y Brenhinoedd J. Gwenogvryn Evans
129-182 Brut y Brenhinoedd X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
183-186 Brut y Brenhinoedd J. Gwenogvryn Evans
187-208 Brut y Brenhinoedd X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
209-210 Brut y Brenhinoedd J. Gwenogvryn Evans
211-240 Brut y Brenhinoedd X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
241-244 Brut y Brenhinoedd J. Gwenogvryn Evans
245-252 Brut y Brenhinoedd X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
253-256 Brut y Brenhinoedd J. Gwenogvryn Evans
257-258 Brut y Brenhinoedd X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
259-260 Brut y Brenhinoedd J. Gwenogvryn Evans
261-268 Brut y Brenhinoedd X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
269-270 Brut y Brenhinoedd J. Gwenogvryn Evans
271-352 Brut y Brenhinoedd X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
353-359 Brut y Brenhinoedd J. Gwenogvryn Evans

The following texts were consulted during transcription.

  • Evans, J. Gwenogvryn and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1890. The Text of the Bruts from the Red Book of Hergest. Oxford: J. G. Evans.
  • Lewis, Henry. ed. 1942. Brut Dingestow. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Supplied text is drawn from the above editions.

Page-numbering is found in the top left corner of each recto page, and the top right corner of each verso in a modern hand, probably that of J. Gwenogvryn Evans.

Given that the page-numbering is consistent throughout the manuscript, on the pages produced by the original scribe and those provided by Evans, it is likely that Evans is responsible for the foliation of the entire manuscript.

Although the greater part of the manuscript does not contain catchwords, examples at the bottom of pages 64, 137, 144, and 352 are placed very low on the page and in some cases are half cut off. There may, therefore, have been more catchwords at some point in the past which have been lost during the process of binding. The present examples are: 64: drysset (in box); 137: ac; 144: ger (in box); 336: hin (in box) 352: y tu (in box)

Holes in the manuscript which have an effect on the text have been tagged accordingly. On occasion natural holes are to be found in the margins of the pages which have no effect on the text, as on pages 57-58, 89-90, 179-80, and 288-89. A rectangular piece has been cut out of the right margin of page 325 and the left margin of page 326 which has had a minimal effect on the text.

The manuscript has also sustained damage which has affected the text. In these cases, the pages have been mended by J. Gwenogvryn Evans, and the missing text provided by him on pages 135-140, 193-194, 207-208 and 211-224.

The text is written in a single column, with between 18 and 21 lines to each page.

The manuscript is written in the mid-fourteenth-century rounded textura script of a scribe known as the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi. This scribe was given the designation X90 by Daniel Huws, and this designation is followed for the purposes of this edition. The Anchorite's hand appears in four further manuscripts including Oxford, Jesus College MS. 119, the manuscript which bears his name ('Book of the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi'), which contains a collection of religious texts, NLW MS. Peniarth 18 which contains a copy of Brut y Tywysogion, and NLW MS. Peniarth 47 part i which contains a copy of Ystoria Dared. He also contributed copies of Purdan Padrig and the Charlemagne material to the White Book of Rhydderch, NLW MS. Peniarth 5.

Medial <a> tends to occur immediately following the punctus and at the beginning of personal names. It is easily distinguishable from the capital form of the letter, but the difference between it and the common form is not as great.

The difference between capital letters and small letters may be slight, especially in the case of less common letters or letters in which the form of the capital is similar to that of the small letter, as with <H>, <K>, <S>, and <Y>. Examples are:

  • <H> 45.2, 45.3, 50.6, 204.4, 213.16, 214.12, 215.17, 317.21, 329.23 etc.
  • <J> 7.4, 45.1, 45.2, 45.4, 59.14, 60.12, 96.20., 139.11 etc.
  • <K> 45.1, 45.3, 45.7
  • <O> 53.13, 54.8, 102.18, 105.7, 133.10, 202.13 etc.
  • <P> 15.4, 29.11, 45.10, 160.5, 202.5, 208.1, 287.8 etc.
  • <S> 44.21, 45.7, 52.14, 55.11, 60.7, 60.12, 97.2, 106.2 147.13 etc.
  • <V> 317.23
  • <Y> 45.1, 45.5, 57.16, 103.21, 144.7, 201.13, 202.8, 202.21 etc.

The dividing line between capital letters and semi-caps may also be unclear, as in most cases the semi-cap is simply a smaller version of the capital, except in the case of <M>, where the capital and semi-cap have different forms. Examples are:

  • <H> 176.2
  • <K> 287.5, 287.19, 289.18
  • <M> 44.21, 45.7, 57.17, 99.5, 135.9, 140.18
  • <R> 218.7
  • <S> 28.20, 42.18, 43.2, 59.13, 129.19
  • <V> 287.6
  • <Y> 201.9, 201.16, 201.18

J. Gwenogvryn Evans noted unique spellings and corrections in the pages which he copied from the Dingestow manuscript by placing a note reading 'sic.' under each instance. Examples are:

  • 65.11 llychlynwyr
  • 65.21 hayach
  • 66.18 ỽnyaỽn
  • 67.7 uhcot

The text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms. Expansions are denoted visually. Examples are:

  • macron for <n> or <m>: 87.16, 88.1, 91.21, 98.11, 99.13, 102.3, 102.8, 108.8, 108.18, 108.21, 109.14, 109.21
  • <9>: <us>, eg. ogynned[us] 85.10; anryded[us] 143.13, 179.4, 181.9, 196.17; aghyfyeith[us] 145.16, 166.14; tagneued[us] 57.16
  • <9>: <ys>, e.g. eỽyll[ys] 97.14, 98.2, 98.7, 111.8, 143.1, 196.15, parthỽ[ys] 178.8
  • <9>: <ws>, e.g. kymmell[ws] 236.16; hymlid[ws] 137.19
  • <9>: <s>, e.g. cu[s]te[n]nin 168.9; haỽ[s] 273.3
  • <cc> for <ur>: arth[ur] 300.11, 305.6, 306.3; gỽneuth[ur] 93.19, 110.4, 168.16, 168.17, 172.10, 187.1, 191.5, etc.; ruth[ur] 173.21, 309.5; uth[ur] 174.14, 239.21, etc.; ysgryth[ur] 334.17, etc.
  • <’> for <er>: amh[er]aỽdyr 131.10, 135.17, 136.7, 143.3, 144.4, 145.18, etc.; ass[er] 45.15; creulond[er] 149.15, 150.6; g[er]mania 154.19, 177.2, 180.20, 182.7, 186.16, 187.21, etc.; heglurd[er] 246.12; h[er]ỽyd 289.17. 291.17; iubit[er] 178.5; of[er] 245.9; ped[er] 196.11
  • <’> for <yr>: amheraỽd[yr] 90.4, 96.4, 98.16, 106.14, 108.11, 108.15, 109.5, etc.; eith[yr] 53.1; urỽyd[yr] 327.5; llyth[yr] 100.8; m[yr]din 196.14, 198.16, 199.1, 199.3, 199.8, etc.; odieith[yr] 148.7; palad[yr] 46.18
  • <o> above <u> for <r>: arthu[r] 267.4
  • <p’> for <pre>: 87.7, 204.3, 223.15, 238.4, 334.18
  • <p’> for <pry>: 287.7
  • <p> with a tail for <pro>: 42.18, 47.3, 199.21, 218.7, 230.13, 236.6, 288.21, 289.8, etc.
  • <e> above a letter for <re>: 131.12, 262.1
  • <i> above a letter for <ri>: 9.16, 23.19, 107.21, 181.17, 230.2, 271.9, etc.
  • <i> above <q> for <qui>: 300.6
  • <o> above a letter for <ro>: 7.5, 300.17
  • <a> above a letter for <ra>: 137.19
  • <2> for <con>: 169.16, 221.19

The scribe may also abbreviate the following commonly occurring names and words:

  • <.y.p.> for <ynys prydein>: 49.2, 85.6, 86.17, 89.5, 93.19, 94.3, 94.8, etc.
  • <ruf’> for <rufein>: 98.14, 98.16, 108.11, etc.
  • <amh’> for <amheraỽdyr>: 111.10
  • <bren> for <brenhin>: 143.3, 144.18
  • <ru> for <rufein>: 129.4, 129.12, 130.5, 130.11, 131.3, 131.10, 133.2, 133.18, etc.
  • <ysrl> for <ysrael>: 38.7
  • <k’> for <kyfreith>: 233.18, 234.1
  • <M> for <mab>: 318.3, 327.22
  • <kyn> for <kynuarch>: 324.3
  • <catỽall’> for <catỽallaỽn>: 338.13
  • <h> for <hyỽel>: 346.6, 346.7

The most common punctuation mark in the text is the punctus. There are also examples of the punctus elevatus at 84.15 and 112.15. The abbreviation <.y.p.> (see above for examples) tends to appear with the punctus both before and after, as does the first person singular personal pronoun <.i.> at 98.20 and 104.20. In two places (160.1, 311.10), the scribe has written two words in the wrong order, and then corrected the text by adding the sign " above each of the words in question to show that their order should be reversed.

The decoration consists in the main of large decorated initials in red ink.

A number of pages contain ornamentation in the margins. The ornamentation is usually associated with a large decorated coloured initial, and consists of a series of line-drawn scrolls that populate the left and occasionally top margins. Examples can be seen on pages 83, 86, 91, 92, 95, 98 and 100.

Page 289 has a small line-drawing in the bottom margin.

The large initials and large decorated initials were probably added to the manuscript after the text was written. Someone traced in the letters that were meant to go in the spaces left for them at an early stage in the production of the manuscript, and they are to be seen peeking out from underneath the initials at 93.13, 135.6, 136.14, 151.15, 153.7, 157.15, 173.20, 174.20 and 175.18.

At 198.8 the scribe and the rubricator have differed in the placement of the initial: the sketched-in <a> appears at the end of line 8 but the large decorated initial appears at the beginning of line 9.

The individual responsible for the ornamentation failed to fill in the gaps left for such initials on a number of occasions, and only the provisional letter remains followed by a gap in the following places: 24.21, 134.1, 158.20, 160.21, 187.21, 192.20 and 226.18.

In other places – 1.1, 17, 24, 144 – it is likely that the scribe or rubricator drew outlines of the initials and failed to fill them in.

At 3.10, no letter, provisional, outlined, or otherwise, appears.

Gwenogvryn Evans reproduced many features of NLW 5266B), the manuscript from which he was copying, including drawing in holes at pages 241-3, and large decorated initials. However, large decorated initials have been omitted at 67.7, 77.22.

The sections in Evans's hand are distinguished by a number of other characteristics which may represent features of his exemplar, which he seemingly aimed to copy as accurately as possible, even when it had errors. Examples of notes may be found at:

  • 67.7: large initial <A> omitted
  • 68.6: a line between <h> and <y> in <canhyadu> along with a note <tro/> in the right margin indicates that these two letters would be reversed
  • 69.21: the <n> in <teyrnget> is underlined, possibly indicating an abbreviation
  • 74.14: the <n> in <guneuthur> is in square brackets
  • 77.22: large initial <A> omitted
  • 113.14: ornamented cross as a filler at the end of the line
  • 120.2: mark above the word <grit>
  • 120.17: square brackets contain a word that has been deleted
  • 123.20-21: crosses under <ae> in <dyrchauael> may refer to the form <uael> written in the margin
  • 128.2: outline for an initial <A> that has not been filled in
  • 194.7: in his transcription of the text, Evans has attempted to imitate the textura of the manuscript; however here he has written <dunt beth a gynghorent> in modern script enclosed within square brackets, perhaps to indicate that it is an addition not present in his exemplar
  • 241. 15-17, 242.9-12, 243.12-15: natural hole drawn in by Gwenogvryn
  • 242. 11-12 and 17-24, 243.14-15, 21-4: cropped page drawn in by Gwenogvryn
  • 253.7, 256.17, 353.15, 354.4, 357.1: marks in the space between the punctus and following <a> may be meant to represent paragraph marks in the exemplar
  • 354.11: lines over <h6rth hynny y mae> and under <y penydya6> combined with a note in the left margin reading ‘transpose’ indicate that the order of these two sequences should be switched
  • 354.19: <un> appears in the text with a <sic> underneath and <un> in the left margin

There are some marginalia in later hands in the manuscript which have not been included in the transcription:

  • 48 LM.7: illegible
  • 51 RM.12: '60'
  • 52 LM.9: 'preter. s.' (unclear)
  • 57 RM.8: 'mt a leger' (unclear)
  • 59 RM.12-13: illegible
  • 63 RM. 11-14: illegible
  • 84 LM.19-20: 'Aethmael Eido'l (unclear)
  • 132 LM.10: 'alban'
  • LM.20: 'J Koel' (unclear)
  • 305 TM: '48'
  • 321 BM: '27 Brud y Breninod' (This is in a later hand and seems to have been written on a piece of paper pasted onto the page. The 27 refers to this manuscript's number when it formed part of the Hengwrt collection.)

Nota marks are to be found in the margins of pages 107, 137, 190, 234, 236, 237 and 300.

Marginalia in Evans's hand are found at:

  • 80 BM: 'Pages 65-80 are taken from Dingestow Court MS. Oxford Nov. 1889 J Gwenogfryn Evans.'
  • 123 LM.21: 'uael'
  • 128 BM: 'Pages 113-128 are taken from Dingestow Court MS but the reading of MS 27 agrees rather with that of Hen. MS 536 just here. Nov. 1889. J. Gwenogfryn Evans.'
  • 186 BM: 'from Dingestow Court MS JGE'
  • 241 LM.23: 'p. 174'
  • 243 LM.2: 'p. 175'
  • 244 LM.5: '176'
  • 253 LM.22: '185'
  • 254 LM.24: '186'
  • 256 LM.2: '187'
  • 259 LM.4: '190'
  • 269 RM.9: nota mark
  • 269 LM.17: '201'
  • 270 RM.16: '202'
  • 353 LM.8: '280'
  • 354 LM.9: '288'
  • 354 LM.11: 'transpose'
  • 354 LM.19: nota mark
  • 359 BM: 'Oxford, December 1891. J. Gwenogvryn Evans.'

The marginalia consisting of numbers probably refer to page numbers from the Dingestow Court manuscript.

Notes in a number of modern hands precede the manuscript and are bound with it:

  • i r: A note in the hand of William Robert Maurice Wynne (William Wynne VII), owner of this manuscript along with the rest of the Peniarth collection, which reads: 'N.B. Next to this MS. & numbered 27B are some fragments of the Dares Phrygius, returned by Mr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans in the same condition as sent. This M.S. was restored & repaired by him. June 29 1892. W.R.M. Wynne'
  • i v: A note on the contents of the manuscript, giving its Hengwrt designation, which reads: 'Hengwrt M.S. 27. The hand writing of this M.S. is very like the 'Llyfr Taliesin' & no. 59 but Mr. W.J. Skene thinks that they are not the same, that this is contemporary with part of the 'Llyfr coch Hergest'; of the 14th century. I shd say early in it.'

The manuscript was written in Wales in the middle of the fourteenth century (Evans 1898-1910: 380, Huws 2000).

NLW Peniarth 46 was acquired by Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt (1592-1667). It is not known where Vaughan got most of his manuscripts, but according to a story in the writings of Edward Lhuyd (Tibbott 1943: iv) he inherited those in the possession of John Jones of Gellilyfdy on Jones's death about 1658. The Hengwrt manuscripts were catalogued in 1658 by William Maurice of Cefnybraich, Llansilin (Jones 1943: xvi). The manuscript was bequeathed by Sir Robert Williames Vaughan (d. 1859), the last baronet of Hengwrt, to his friend William Watkin Edward Wynne (1801-1880) of Peniarth in 1859, along with the rest of the Hengwrt collection (Tibbott 1943: viii).

The Hengwrt catalogue was revised by Aneurin Owen (d.1851), and then by William Watkin Wynne. This catalogue was published in Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1869-1871 (Jones 1943: xv). The manuscript was catalogued and re-numbered by J. Gwenogvryn Evans when he examined the collection for the Historical Manuscripts Commission along with the rest of the Peniarth manuscripts, while they were in the possession of W.W.E. Wynne’s son, William Robert Maurice Wynne (d.1909).

According to a note in the hand of W.R.M. Wynne which is bound with the manuscript, the manuscript was repaired by J. Gwenogvryn Evans sometime before June 1892. It is likely that it was at this time that Evans added paper leaves containing the corresponding text from the Dingestow Court manuscript (NLW 5266B) in order to fill textual lacunae caused by missing folios. In notes in the bottom margins of pages 80 and 128 of the manuscript, Evans claims to have made these additions in November of 1889.

The Peniarth collection was secured for the nascent National Library of Wales by Sir John Williams who, in 1904, paid the Wynne brothers a sum to ensure the reversion of the collection to the Library upon the death of both brothers. Along with the rest of the collection, the manuscript passed to the Library in 1909 (Tibbott 1943: viii).

Information on the dating and hand of this manuscript is based on the following authorities:

  • Evans, J. Gwenogvryn. 1898-1910. Peniarth 46. Report on Manuscripts in the Welsh Language 1. London: HMSO. 380.
  • Huws, Daniel. 2000. Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff and Aberystwyth: University of Wales Press and the National Library of Wales.
  • Huws, Daniel. A Repertory of Welsh Manuscripts and Scribes. draft.
  • Jones, E. D. 1943. Old Catalogues of the Hengwrt Manuscripts. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales. xv-xxiii.
  • Jones, Thomas. 1948. Nodiadau Testunol ar Lyfr Gwyn Rhydderch. BBCS 12. 83-6.
  • Tibbot, Gildas. 1943. A Brief History of the Hengwrt-Peniarth Collection. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales: i-xiv.

The Welsh Prose 1350-1425 website is the product of an AHRC funded research project undertaken by staff at the School of Welsh, Cardiff University from 2004 through 2007 called Corff Electronig o Ryddiaith Cymraeg Canol. The aim of this project was to produce machine-readable editions of all the medieval Welsh prose texts which have been preserved in manuscripts dating from c.1350 to c.1425.

The project is a continuation and a development of two previous projects funded by the University of Wales which transcribed the Welsh prose in manuscripts dated to c.1250-c.1350.

The intention is to give scholars access not only to texts that have hitherto remained unedited but also to the different versions of texts that have been the subject of critical editions.

Certain decorative features have been encoded: these may trigger further study of the original manuscripts. Primarily, however, the resource provides detail which it is hoped will further the study of the language and literature of the period.

In producing this edition, we have attempted to fulfil two different and often non-complementary if not opposing goals: to present a minimally edited edition of the text, and to represent as many visual features of the manuscript as possible.

Visual features of the text such as layout, and rubrication may prove to be as essential in textual interpretation as features such as punctuation, letter forms, capitalisation and word division, which are more usually invoked by scholars in the field.

The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his audience, or patron used it. Where the scribe's orthography seems to merit particular attention, an editorial gloss has been added to indicate what we believe to have been the target form.

In some places, especially where the manuscript is damaged, we have supplied text. This serves the two-fold purpose of presenting a complete text and, perhaps more importantly, of indicating the size of the damaged area.

In order to make editorial intervention as transparent as possible, supplied text is clearly marked off from the manuscript text by a different font. Also in the spirit of editorial transparency, we have wherever possible used published editions for supplied text. Text supplied from published editions may suffer from obvious errors or significant differences in orthography from the manuscript text. We have refrained from imposing our own editorial actions on such features.

The transcription of this manuscript, as well as the information in this TEI header, is based on the microfilm reproduction of the manuscript produced by the National Library of Wales in 1994. As we have not checked the transcription against the original, information on the scribal hands, foliation, accompanying materials, colour scheme and ornamentation should be treated as provisional.

  • 20-Jan-2011 DL: edited TEI header
  • 10-Aug-2007 PWT: edited TEI header
  • 23-Nov-2006 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
  • 26-Jan-2007 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
  • 3-Jun-2005 DL: converted Word files with shortcuts into XML files and corrected them
  • 23-Jun-2004 – 5-Aug-2004 DL: checked DMS's corrections of pages 81-199 and 300-359 against microfilm; corrected electronic transcription of pages 81-199 and 300-359
  • 23-Jun-2004 – 30-Jul-2004 DMS: checked DL's corrections of pages 1-80 and 200-299 against microfilm; corrected electronic transcription of pages 1-80 and 200-299
  • 22-Jun-2004 – 5-Aug-2004 DMS: checked DL's transcript of pages 81-199 and 300-359 against prints
  • 22-Jun-2004 – 30-Jul-2004 DL: checked DMS's transcript of pages 1-80, 200-299 against prints
  • 21-Jun-2004 – 3-Aug-2004 DL: transcribed pages 81-199 and 300-359
  • 21-Jun-2004 – 29-Jul-2004 DMS: transcribed pages 1-80 and 200-299

The material has been transcribed separately.