Breudwd Welsh Prose 1300-1425

TEI Header for Philadelphia MS. 8680

: Philadelphia 8680: An Electronic Edition. TEI header

: Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2AE 0117 987 6500

Principal Investigator: Peter Wynn Thomas

Transcribed and encoded by D. Mark Smith

Transcribed and encoded by Diana Luft

School of Welsh, Cardiff University Cardiff 2013

  • : Philadelphia PA, U.S.A.
  • : Free Library of Philadelphia
  • : 8680

The manuscript contains copies of the historical texts Ystoria Dared and Brut y Brenhinoedd in the hand of Hywel Fychan. Both texts are marred by lacunae and many folios have been bound in the incorrect place. These are preceded by an incomplete copy of Delw'r Byd, and a Calendar in the fifteenth or sixteenth century hand of an unidentified scribe. An incomplete copy of Ystoria Dared in the hand of the unidentified fifteenth or sixteenth century scribe follows these two texts, and a fragment of Brut y Brenhinoedd in the same hand is bound at the end of the manuscript.

Page Column Contents Hand
1r-1v >Delw'r Byd, incomplete Philadelphia hand A
folios missing
2r-2v Delw'r Byd, incomplete Philadelphia hand A
3r-4v 1-8 Calendar, incomplete Philadelphia hand A
5r-20v Ystoria Dared, incomplete, not transcribed 15th or 16th century hand
21r-22v 1-8 Ystoria Dared, incomplete Hywel Fychan
Folio 30 belongs here
23r-25v 9-20 Ystoria Dared, incomplete Hywel Fychan
25v-28v 21-32 Brut y Brenhinoedd, incomplete Hywel Fychan
Folio 31 belongs here.
29r-29v 33-36 Brut y Brenhinoedd, incomplete Hywel Fychan
30r-30v 37-40 Ystoria Dared, incomplete. This folio belongs between folios 22 and 23. Hywel Fychan
31r-31v 41-44 Brut y Brenhinoedd, incomplete. This folio belongs between folios 28 and 29. Hywel Fychan
Folio 29 belongs here.
32r-32v 45-48 Brut y Brenhinoedd, incomplete. This folio belongs between folios 29 and folio 33. Hywel Fychan
Lacuna in text, several gatherings missing
33r-43v 49-92 Brut y Brenhinoedd, incomplete Hywel Fychan
Lacuna in text, one folio missing
44r-67v 93-188 Brut y Brenhinoedd, incomplete Hywel Fychan
Lacuna in text, two folios missing
68r-68v 189-191 Brut y Brenhinoedd, incomplete Hywel Fychan
69r-70v Fragment of Brut y Brenhinoedd, not transcribed 15th or 16th century hand

The following texts were consulted during transcription:

  • Evans, J. Gwenogvryn and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1890. The Text of the Bruts from the Red Book of Hergest. Oxford: J.G. Evans.
  • Lewis, Henry. ed. 1942. Brut Dingestow. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
  • Lewis, Henry and Diverres, Pol. eds. 1928. Delw y Byd (Imago Mundi). Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

The editors have drawn on the above editions for supplied text in this transcription.

No foliation is visible in this manuscript. We have thus created our own system of foliation by assigning the identifier '1r' to the first page of the work of Philadelphia Scribe A and continuing the numbering from that point onwards.

Catchwords are occasionally found in the bottom right hand corner of the page; others may have been cut out later as a result of the process of binding. All catchwords are in the hand of the main scribe unless otherwise noted. Examples may be seen at pages 32v: nos, 55v: kanys

The manuscript is in good condition, although there are several folios missing and several folios have been bound out of place. The correct order of folios is: 1-22, 30, 25-28, 31, 29, 32, lacuna, 33-43, lacuna, 44-67, lacuna, 68-70.

The first four folios are much darkened and difficult to read.

Delw'r Byd is written in a single column of 23 lines to each page.

The Calendar is written in two columns of 31 lines each.

The Hywel Fychan copies of Ystoria Dared and Brut y Brenhinoedd are written in two columns of either 25 or 26 lines each.

The manuscript is written in the late-fourteenth-century rounded textura hands of two scribes – Philadelphia hand A and Hywel Fychan – and the fifteenth- or sixteenth-century anglicana hand of a third. Philadelphia hand A was responsible for copying folios 1-4 of the manuscript. An unidentified fifteenth- or sixteenth-century scribe penned folios 5-20 and 69-70. His work has not been transcribed as it falls outside the remit of the present project. Hywel Fychan copied folios 21-68. Hywel was also responsible for penning Peniarth 11, Llanstephan 27, Oxford Jesus College 57, parts of the Red Book of Hergest (Oxford Jesus College 111), and the other manuscripts which comprise the Red Book of Talgarth (Peniarth 12 and pages 101-112 of Cardiff 3.242).
‘Philadelphia hand A’

'Philadelphia hand A' makes use of both regular and medial <a>. The medial <a> often serves almost as a capital and is commonly found at the beginning names and clauses.

The orthography of this scribe does not differ substantially from expected forms.

‘Hywel Fychan’

Hywel Fychan makes use of both regular and medial <a>. The medial <a> often serves almost as a capital and is commonly found at the beginning names and clauses.

The orthography of this scribe does not differ substantially from expected forms.

The text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms.

  • macron for <n>: agamemno[n] 21r.2.23; chỽynua[n] 21v.4.14; dygỽydassa[n]t 21v.3.8; vlae[n] 1r.20; hy[n]ny 21r.1.25; [n]amyn 1r.1; mae[n]t 1v.16; namy[n] 1r.10; udu[n]t 21r.5.6; yche[n] 1v.9; y[n] 2r.13
  • macron for <m>: agame[m]non 21r.1.12, 21v.4.6, 23v.11.6; kedy[m]deithon 51v.124.23; ky[m]ryt 41v.83.7
  • <a> above the letter for <ra>: th[ra]nnoeth 21v.4.10; ymad[ra]ỽd 40v.80.21
  • <i> above the letter for <ri>: p[ri]af 23r.9.16, 30r.37.17, 30v.40.25; p[ri]aỽt 49v.116.1; t[ri] 41r.82.11
  • <o> above the letter for <ro>: g[ro]ec 22r.6.21, 23v.11.9, 28r.30.6; t[ro]edaỽt 1r.3
  • <9> for <ur>: arth<ur> 33r.49.18, 33v.52.13, 34r.54.3; wneuth[ur] 24r.14.11, 30r.37.11
  • <9> for <us>: andylyed[us] 39v.78.25; asarac[us] 31v.43.19; brut[us] 31v.43.13; chỽint[us] 51v.124.6; enryded[us] 54r.133.15; lepid[us] 51v.124.7; thesen[us] 2r.10
  • <2> for <er>: alexand[er] 21v.3.16, 21v.4.14, 30v.39.7; amh[er]otraeth 39r.74.3, 40v.80.6; g[er]mania 54v.135.18; greulond[er] 39r.17.25; niu[er] 22r.5.11, 25v.19.4; sỽp[er] 30v.40.23
  • <2> for <re>: b[re]nhin 36v.63.14, 37r.65.10; p[re]ssỽylaỽ 28v.31.19
  • <2> for <ry>: p[ry]dein 33r.49.24, 35v.60.24, 36r.62.17
  • <2> for <yr>: amheraỽd[yr] 34r.53.22

There are also abbreviations for commonly occurring names and words:

  • <achel[arwy]>: 21r.1.16, 21r.2.2, 22r.6.25
  • <urenh[in]>: 33v.52.10, 37v.67.25

Punctuation consists of the punctus and the punctus elevatus.

The decoration consists in the main of large decorated initials in red ink.

In some cases there are drawings associated with catchwords. An example may be seen at 55v.

There are some marginalia in later hands in the manuscript which have not been included in the transcription.

The manuscript dates from the end of the fourteenth century or beginning of the fifteenth (Huws 2006: 60).

The greater part of the manuscript was written by Hywel Fychan at the behest of Hopcyn ap Tomas of Ynystawe (Ynysforgan, in actuality: see Morgan 1978), as the scribe himself attests in a colophon on folio 68: 'Y llyuyr hỽnn a yscriuennỽys Howel Vychan uab Howel Goch o Uuellt yn llỽyr onys gỽnaeth agkof adaỽ geir neu lythyreu, o arch a gorchymun y vaester, nyt amgen Hopkyn uab Thomas uab Einaỽn, yr rei a odolygant y paỽb gỽediaỽ duỽ drostunt yr a darlleho y llyvyr hỽnn am uadeueint oc eu pechodeu, a channattau gỽir lewenyd didiffyc diorffenn ygyt a' r tat a'r mab a'r yspryt glan, amen'.

Christine James (1993: 17, 31) points out that an awdl to Hopcyn ap Tomas by Dafydd y Coed found in the Red Book of Hergest (Oxford Jesus College 111) states that amongst the books to be found in his court were ‘y Lusidarius/ A’r Greal a’r Ynyales/ A grym pob kyfreith ae gras’. She suggests that this manuscript may be connected with the ‘Ynyales’ mentioned in the verse.

Information on the dating and hand of this manuscript is based on the following authorities:

  • Huws, Daniel. 2000. Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff and Aberystwyth: University of Wales Press and the National Library of Wales.
  • Huws, Daniel. A Repertory of Welsh Manuscripts and Scribes. draft.
  • James, Christine. 1993. 'Llwyr Wybodau, Llên a Llyfrau': Hopcyn ap Tomas a’r Traddodiad Llenyddol Cymraeg. Hywel Teifi Edwards. ed. Cwm Tawe. Llandysul: Gwasg Gomer 4-44.
  • Jenkins, R. T. ed. 1959. Dictionary of Welsh Biography down to 1940. London: Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion.
  • Morgan, Prys. 1982. Glamorgan and the Red Book. Morgannwg 22. 42-60.
  • Roberts, Brynley. 1967. Un o lawysgrifau Hopcyn ab Tomas o Ynys Dawe. BBCS 22. 223-227.

The Welsh Prose 1350-1425 website is the product of an AHRC funded research project undertaken by staff at the School of Welsh, Cardiff University from 2004 through 2007 called Corff Electronig o Ryddiaith Cymraeg Canol. The aim of this project was to produce machine-readable editions of all the medieval Welsh prose texts which have been preserved in manuscripts dating from c.1350 to c.1425.

The project is a continuation and a development of two previous projects funded by the University of Wales which transcribed the Welsh prose in manuscripts dated to c.1250-c.1350.

The intention is to give scholars access not only to texts that have hitherto remained unedited but also to the different versions of texts that have been the subject of critical editions.

Certain decorative features have been encoded: these may trigger further study of the original manuscripts. Primarily, however, the resource provides detail which it is hoped will further the study of the language and literature of the period.

In producing this edition, we have attempted to fulfil two different and often non-complementary if not opposing goals: to present a minimally edited edition of the text, and to represent as many visual features of the manuscript as possible.

Visual features of the text such as layout, and rubrication may prove to be as essential in textual interpretation as features such as punctuation, letter forms, capitalisation and word division, which are more usually invoked by scholars in the field.

The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his audience, or patron used it. Where the scribe's orthography seems to merit particular attention, an editorial gloss has been added to indicate what we believe to have been the target form.

In some places, especially where the manuscript is damaged, we have supplied text. This serves the two-fold purpose of presenting a complete text and, perhaps more importantly, of indicating the size of the damaged area.

In order to make editorial intervention as transparent as possible, supplied text is clearly marked off from the manuscript text by a different font. Also in the spirit of editorial transparency, we have wherever possible used published editions for supplied text. Text supplied from published editions may suffer from obvious errors or significant differences in orthography from the manuscript text. We have refrained from imposing our own editorial actions on such features.

The transcription of this manuscript, as well as the information in this TEI header, is based on the microfilm reproduction of the manuscript produced by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania for the Free Library of Philadelphia. As we have not checked the transcription against the original, information on the scribal hands, foliation, accompanying materials, colour scheme and ornamentation should be treated as provisional.

  • 28-Feb-2011 DL: edited TEI header
  • 16-Aug-2007 PWT: edited TEI header
  • 17-May-2007 – 18-May-2007 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
  • 10-Apr-2007 DL: converted Word files with shortcuts into XML files and corrected them
  • DMS: corrected electronic transcription of folios 1r-4v, 21r-68v
  • DMS: checked transcript of folios 1r-4v, 21r-68v against prints
  • DMS: transcribed folios 1r-4v, 21r-68v with shortcuts

The material has been transcribed separately.