Breudwd Welsh Prose 1300-1425

TEI Header for Oxford Rawlinson MS. B 467

: Oxford Bodleian Rawlinson B 467: An Electronic Edition. TEI header

: Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2AE 0117 987 6500

Principal Investigator: Peter Wynn Thomas

Transcribed and encoded by D. Mark Smith

Transcribed and encoded by Diana Luft

School of Welsh, Cardiff University Cardiff 2013

  • : Oxford
  • : Bodleian Library
  • : Rawlinson B 467

The manuscript contains a collection of medical tracts similar to those found in Cardiff 3.242 (Hafod 16). It is a composite manuscript made up of the work of several scribes. The work of hands B, C and D (folios 17-93) may have formed a unit before being bound with that of hand A (folios 1-16). Images of this manuscript can be seen at:

Page Contents Hand
1r-2v Y Pedwar Gwlybwr Rawl B467 hand A
2v-5v Rhinweddau Bwydydd Rawl B467 hand A
A number of folia are missing here
5v-7r Rhinweddau Bwydydd Rawl B467 hand A
A number of folia are missing here
7v-15v Rhinweddau Bwydydd Rawl B467 hand A
15v Fragment of an unidentified medical text Rawl B467 hand A
16r-16v Comments and marginalia in a number of 16th century hands, not transcribed later hands
17r-33r Meddyginiaethau Rawl B467 hand B
33r-37r Campau'r Cennin Rawl B467 hand B
37r-38v Meddyginiaethau Rawl B467 hand B
39r-42v Deuddeng Arwydd Rawl B467 hand C
42v-46v Meddyginiaethau Rawl B467 hand C
46v-47v Gollwng Gwaed Rawl B467 hand C
47v-54r Meddyginiaethau Rawl B467 hand C
54r-59r Llythyr Aristotlys at Alecsander: Pryd a Gwedd Dynion Rawl B467 hand C
59r-61r Y Pedwar Defnydd Rawl B467 hand C
61r-66r Ansoddau'r Trwnc Rawl B467 hand C
66r-69v Meddyginiaethau Rawl B467 hand C
69v-70v Wyth Rhan Pob Dyn Rawl B467 hand C
70v-72v Tract on the Four Winds from Delw'r Byd> Rawl B467 hand C
73r-90v Meddyginiaethau Rawl B467 hand D
90v-93r Meddyginiaethau Rawl B467 hand E

The following texts were consulted during transcription:

  • Jones, Ida B. ed. 1956-1959. Hafod 16 (A Mediaeval Welsh Medical Treatise). Études Celtiques 7. 46-75, 270-339; 8. 66-97, 346-93.
  • Lewis, Henry and Diverres, Pol. eds. 1928. Delw y Byd (Imago Mundi). Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Supplied text in this edition is drawn from these two studies.

Page numbering appears in a modern hand in the top right corner of each recto page.

Catchwords are occasionally found in the bottom right hand corner of the page. Others may have been cut out during binding. All catchwords are in the hand of the scribe at that point unless otherwise noted. An example may be seen at 8v: a sych (bottom margin, right, surrounded by a box).

The manuscript is difficult to read in places because of fading and staining. Much of folio 93 has been ripped out.

The text is written in a single column of between 14 and 18 lines to each page.

The manuscript is written in the hands of four late fourteenth-century or early fifteenth-century scribes. 'Rawl B467 hand A' wrote the text on folios 1r-15r. 'Rawl B467 hand B' wrote the text from folios 17r-38v. 'Rawl B467 hand C' wrote the largest section of the manuscript, folios 39r-72v. 'Rawl B467 hand D' wrote the text on folios 73r-90v. A fifth scribe, 'Rawl B467 hand E' wrote the text on folios 90v-93r. This appears to be later than the work of hands A-D, but has been transcribed in this editio nonetheless.
‘Rawl B467 hand A’

The orthography of hand A does not differ substantially from expected forms.

‘Rawl B467 hand B’

Hand B uses both regular and medial <a>.

Hand B uses both regular and dotted <y>. There seems to be no phonological trigger for the choice. The undotted variant is slightly more common with capital letters than small ones.

Hand B uses both regular and ligatured <ll>.

Hand B's orthography may differ substantially from what is expected. Examples are:

  • <i> for <y>, e.g. <bir> ‘byr’, <i> ‘y’, <yni> ‘yny’
  • <td> for <d>, e.g. <diotdyd> ‘diodyd’
  • <v> for <w>, e.g. <arvyd> ‘arwyd’, <vin> ‘win’

‘Rawl B467 hand C’

Hand C uses both regular and dotted <y>. There seems to be no phonological trigger for the choice. The undotted variant is slightly more common with capital letters than small ones.

Hand C uses both regular and ligatured <ll>.

The orthography of hand C does not differ substantially from expected forms.

‘Rawl B467 hand D’

Hand D uses both regular and dotted <y>. There seems to be no phonological trigger for the choice. The undotted variant is slightly more common with capital letters than small ones.

The orthography of hand D does not differ substantially from expected forms.

‘Rawl B467 hand E’

Hande E uses both regular and medial <a>.

Hand E uses both regular and dotted <y>. There seems to be no phonological trigger for the choice. The undotted variant is slightly more common with capital letters than small ones.

Hand E uses both regular and ligatured <ll>.

The orthography of hand E does not differ substantially from expected forms.

The text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms.

  • macron for <n>: chroue[n]nua 81r.3; da[n]ned 20r.15, 82v.12, 82v.14; fu[n]dyment 81r.7; gla[n]n 76r.12; gỽyn[n] 78r.12; hỽ[n]n 81v.10; la[n]hau 74v.3; mi[n]t 81v.11; morgely[n] 80r.14, etc.
  • macron for <m>: apiu[m] 5v.13; ffy[m]p 73v.10; gy[m]meint 75v.9; plỽm[m]ys 74v.1; pullegiu[m] 73v.4; to[m]lyt 64r.16; y[m]mot 76r.15
  • <p> with a tail for <pro>: p[ro]uadỽy 51v.7
  • <p> with a cross through the tail for <per>: p[er]ued 34v.18; p[er]i 34v.6; p[er]sin 32r.4; p[er]sli 32v.16
  • <p> with a cross through the tail for <par>: p[ar]lis 34r.6
  • <i> above a letter for <ui>: sang[ui]s 2r.8
  • <9> for <ur>: dol[ur] 80r.17, 83r.7
  • <9> for <us>: meu[us] 31v.8; plum[us] 36r.2
  • <2> for <yr>: blast[yr] 32v.14, 92r.13; vineg[yr] 81v.3; lest[yr] 91v.14
  • <2> for <er>: walt[er] 43r.6; 81v.16
  • <uu> for <an>: ieu[an] bych[an] 37v.17; 82v.1

Commonly occuring names and words may also be abbreviated:

  • kym[er] 73r.10, 73r.14, 73v.4, 73v.9, 73v.13, 73v.15, 74r.2, 74r.7, etc.
  • v[yd] 82v.5
  • M[elancholia] 60v.16
  • ss[ych] 60v.15

Punctuation consists of the punctus and the punctus elevatus.

Decoration consists of rubrication and large initials, fillers and paragraph marks in red ink. On pages 73r to 90v the initials are often found in the left margin of the pages instead of embedded in the text.

In many places where there are coloured initial letters, the scribe has indicated where these should go by placing a mark in the left-hand margin, though this mark does not indicate what the letter should be. Examples may be seen at 82r.5, 82r.9, 53v.11 and 53v.13.

In some cases the person responsible for filling in the decorated initials has missed one and only a space indicates where such a letter should be. Examples are: <M>: 82r.9; <L>: 45r.1; <R>: 45r.13; <Y>: 53v.13.

Marginalia in later hands – may of which were also illegible – have not been included in the transcription.

  • 63r TM: illegible
  • 63r BM: illegible (upside down?)
  • 64r TM: illegible
  • 79r TM: 'ne' (possibly meant to correct <newyd> in the text)
  • 92v TM: illegible
  • 2v BM: '[...] .i. bronfeuel' (unclear)
  • 93v: '[...] loco p[er] loco pono lo[...]' (damaged and illegible)
  • 93v: '[...] loco p[er] loco pono locum' (damaged and illegible)
  • 94r: alphabets
  • 94r: 'Corpus her[...]' (illegible)

The manuscript survives in its original binding (Huws 2000: 43).

The inside of the front cover contains a note in the hand of Edward Lhuyd giving the manuscript's designation as well as the name of the donor. It reads: 'Rawl B. 467: Edvardo Luidio donavit D. T. Thomas a Cwr y Wayn apud Maridunenses. A[nno]. 1698'.

The manuscript was produced at the end of the fourteenth or the beginning of the fifteenth century in Wales (Huws 2000: 60).

According to a note in the hand of Edward Lhuyd (?1660-1709) on the inside front cover, the manuscript was given to him by D. T. Thomas of Cwr y Waun near Llangadog, Carmarthenshire in 1698. Despite Lhuyd's wish that his manuscripts remain at Oxford after his death, his collection was refused by both the Bodleian Library and Jesus College. The printed books were given to the University to cover Lhuyd's considerable printing debts, and the manuscripts were to be sold in order to cover other debts. His manuscripts remained in the possession of the University, awaiting a purchaser from his death in 1709 until they were bought by Sir Thomas Sebright, the fourth baronet, in 1715. The manuscript retains the red wax seal and numbering (No. 40) that were probably put there during this period (Rees and Walters 1974: 177).

Whether this manuscript was bought by Sebright or whether it remained at Oxford is not known. Rees and Walters (1974: 150) suggest that 'there was probably considerable viewing and tampering with the manuscripts' during the period 1709-1715. Somehow it passed, along with another five of Lhuyd's manuscripts – Rawlinson B464, B465, B466, B468 and B469 – into the collection of Richard Rawlinson (1689/90-1755). Rawlinson had attended Oxford from 1711-1719 and may have come across Lhuyd's manuscripts at that time. Alternatively, he may have purchased the manuscripts at one of the many London book sales he frequented sometime between 1715 and 1755.

Rawlinson bequeathed his vast collection to the Bodleian Library upon his death in 1755. The bequest apparently overwhelmed the Library's small staff, and no attempt was made to order or catalogue the manuscripts until the beginning of the nineteenth century (Madan 1895: 178). The Lhuyd manuscripts were catalogued as part of the Rawlinson B collection, which contains manuscripts dealing with British antiquities and genealogy.

Information on the dating and hand of this manuscript is based on:

  • Clapison, Mary. 2004. Rawlinson, Richard (1690-1755). The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford. [, accessed 5 April 2007]
  • Huws, Daniel. 2000. Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff and Aberystwyth: University of Wales Press and the National Library of Wales.
  • Huws, Daniel. A Repertory of Welsh Manuscripts and Scribes. draft.
  • Macray, W. E. ed. 1862-1900. B 467. Catalogi codicum manuscriptorum bibliothecae Bodleianae partis quintae fasciculus primus, viri munificentissimi Ricardi Rawlinson, J.C.D. codicum classes duas priores, ad rem historicam praecipue et topographicam spectantes, complectens. Oxford.
  • Madan, Falconer. 1895. A Summary Catalogue of Western Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 3.
  • Owen, Morfudd. 1974. Llawysgrif Feddygol a Anwybyddwyd. BBCS 26. 48-49.
  • Owen, Morfudd. 1976. Meddygon Myddfai: A Preliminary Survey of some Medieval Medical Writing in Welsh. Studia Celtica 10/11. 210-233.
  • Rees, Eiluned and Walters, Gwyn. 1974. The Dispersion of the Manuscripts of Edward Lhuyd. Journal of Welsh History 7. 148-178.

The Welsh Prose 1350-1425 website is the product of an AHRC funded research project undertaken by staff at the School of Welsh, Cardiff University from 2004 through 2007 called Corff Electronig o Ryddiaith Cymraeg Canol. The aim of this project was to produce machine-readable editions of all the medieval Welsh prose texts which have been preserved in manuscripts dating from c.1350 to c.1425.

The project is a continuation and a development of two previous projects funded by the University of Wales which transcribed the Welsh prose in manuscripts dated to c.1250-c.1350.

The intention is to give scholars access not only to texts that have hitherto remained unedited but also to the different versions of texts that have been the subject of critical editions.

Certain decorative features have been encoded: these may trigger further study of the original manuscripts. Primarily, however, the resource provides detail which it is hoped will further the study of the language and literature of the period.

In producing this edition, we have attempted to fulfil two different and often non-complementary if not opposing goals: to present a minimally edited edition of the text, and to represent as many visual features of the manuscript as possible.

Visual features of the text such as layout, and rubrication may prove to be as essential in textual interpretation as features such as punctuation, letter forms, capitalisation and word division, which are more usually invoked by scholars in the field.

The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his audience, or patron used it. Where the scribe's orthography seems to merit particular attention, an editorial gloss has been added to indicate what we believe to have been the target form.

In some places, especially where the manuscript is damaged, we have supplied text. This serves the two-fold purpose of presenting a complete text and, perhaps more importantly, of indicating the size of the damaged area.

In order to make editorial intervention as transparent as possible, supplied text is clearly marked off from the manuscript text by a different font. Also in the spirit of editorial transparency, we have wherever possible used published editions for supplied text. Text supplied from published editions may suffer from obvious errors or significant differences in orthography from the manuscript text. We have refrained from imposing our own editorial actions on such features.

The transcription of this manuscript, as well as the information in this TEI header, is based on the microfilm reproduction of the manuscript produced by the British Library in 2004. As the editors have not checked the transcription against the original, information on the scribal hands, foliation, accompanying materials, colour scheme and ornamentation should be treated as provisional.

  • 21-Jan-2011 DL: edited TEI header
  • 14-Aug-2007 PWT: edited TEI header
  • 2-Jun-2006 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
  • 12-Apr-2006 DL: converted Word files with shortcuts into XML files and corrected them
  • 13-Oct-2005 – 25-Oct-2005 DL: corrected electronic version of folios 55r-92v
  • 11-Oct-2005 – 21-Oct-2005 DMS: checked DL's transcript of folios 55r-92v against prints
  • 10-Oct-2005 – 26-Oct-2005 DMS: corrected electronic transcription of folios 1r-15v, 17r-54v
  • 7-Oct-2005 – 18-Oct-2005 DL: transcribed folios 55r-92v with shortcuts
  • 6-Oct-2005 – 25-Oct-2005 DL: checked DMS's transcript of folios 1r-15v, 17r-54v against prints
  • 5-Oct-2005 – 21-May-2005 DMS: transcribed folios 1r-15v, 17r-54v with shortcuts

The material has been transcribed separately.