Breudwd Rhyddiaith Gymraeg 1300-1425

Pennyn y Fenter Amgodio Testunau (TEI) ar gyfer LlGC Llsgr. Llanstephan 27 (Llyfr Coch Talgarth)

: 'Llanstephan 27: An Electronic Edition' TEI header

: Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2AE 0117 987 6500

Principal Investigator: Peter Wynn Thomas

Transcribed and encoded by D. Mark Smith

Transcribed and encoded by Diana Luft

School of Welsh, Cardiff University Cardiff 2013

  • : Aberystwyth
  • : National Library of Wales
  • : Llanstephan 27
  • : Red Book of Talgarth
  • : Shirburn E 58

Llanstephan 27 forms one part of the manuscript known as Llyfr Coch Talgarth (The Red Book of Talgarth). At some point in its history, three quires of the manuscript became separated and are now kept and catalogued apart from it: Peniarth 12, which is made up of two quires containing the text Ystoria Luicidar; and pages 101-112 of Cardiff 3.242, which contain the end of Gwyrthiau Mair and a copy of Bonedd y Saint.

Llanstephan 27 itself contains a collection of instructional religious texts, as well as a series of apocryphal texts which form a religious history of the world from creation to the life of Christ. Some saints' lives are also included, as well as some charms and prayers in Latin. There is also proverbial material, pseudo-scientific material dealing with the interpretation of dreams and signs, and some poetry, which lies outside the scope of this project and hence has not been transcribed.

Page Contents Hand
i r notes; not transcribed Moses Williams
i v blank
ii r note; not transcribed J. Gwenogvryn Evans
ii v
iii r-iv v notes; not transcribed Moses Williams
vi r Welsh pedigrees; not transcribed 14th or 15th-century hand
vi v Triads; not transcribed 15th-century hand
vii r two Latin prayers in a 15th-century hand ?
vii v-viii r poetry by Dafydd ap Gwilym and Ieuan Brydydd Tew; not transcribed 15th-century hand
ix v Welsh prose text; not transcribed 15th-century hand
1r-20v Ystoria Lucidar Hywel Fychan
2 gatherings (40 pages) missing These pages are at present bound with Peniarth 12 where they form pages 39r-58v
21r-26r Ystoria Lucidar Hywel Fychan
26r-41r Ymborth yr Enaid Hywel Fychan
41v-42r Y Drindod yn Un Duw Hywel Fychan
42r-43v Credo Athanasius Hywel Fychan
43v-47r Pa ddelw y dylai dyn gredu i Dduw Hywel Fychan
47r-49r Pwyll y Pader, Hu Hywel Fychan
49r-51r Deuddeg Pwnc y Gredo Hywel Fychan
51r-52r Pwyll y Pader, Awstin Hywel Fychan
52r-54v Breuddwyd Pawl Hywel Fychan
54v-56r Epistol y Sul Hywel Fychan
56r Mi yw Pedr Esgob Antioys Hywel Fychan
56r-56v Rhinweddau Gwrando Offeren Hywel Fychan
56v-57v Ystoria Adrian ac Ipotis Hywel Fychan
58r-59v Ystoria Adrian ac Ipotis Llanstephan 27 hand B
60r-62v Ystoria Adrian ac Ipotis Hywel Fychan
62v-71v Buchedd Dewi Hywel Fychan
71v-76v Buchedd Beuno Hywel Fychan
76v-80r Ystoria Adda ac Efa Hywel Fychan
80r-84v Ystoria Adda Hywel Fychan
84v-101v Mabinogi Iesu Grist Hywel Fychan
102r-106v Y Groglith Hywel Fychan
106v-124v Efengyl Nicodemus Hywel Fychan
125r-129v Ystoria Titus Hywel Fychan
129v-130v Ystoria Bilatus, end wanting Hywel Fychan
pages missing
131r-131v Buchedd Catrin, beginning wanting Hywel Fychan
132r-135v Buchedd Mair Fadlen Hywel Fychan
136r-137r Buchedd Martha Hywel Fychan
137r-146v Purdan Padrig Hywel Fychan
1 folio missing
147r-151r Purdan Padrig Hywel Fychan
151r-151v Rhybudd Gabriel Hywel Fychan
151v-152r Post prif wedi Hywel Fychan
152r-153r Pwy bynnag a ddyweto’r Enwau hyn Hywel Fychan
153r Gracias tibi ago Hywel Fychan
153v-155v Deall Breuddwydion Hywel Fychan
156r-156v Deall Breuddwydion Llanstephan 27 hand B
157r-158r Dylanwad y Lleuad Hywel Fychan
158r Haul Dydd Nadolig Hywel Fychan
158r-158v Gwynt Nos Nadolig Hywel Fychan
158v Trystau Hywel Fychan
159r-159v Gwaeau Hywel Fychan
159v Y pethau ni thalant ddim Hywel Fychan
160r-160v Argoelion y Flwyddyn Hywel Fychan
160v-161r Arwyddion Calan Ionawr Hywel Fychan
161r Pymtheng Arwydd cyn Dydd Brawd Hywel Fychan
161v-163r Englynion y Clywed, not transcribed Hywel Fychan
163v Ymdidan y corff a'r eneit, not transcribed Hywel Fychan
163v-164r Kyssul adaon, not transcribed Hywel Fychan
164r-164v Cas Ddynion Selyf Hywel Fychan
164v-169r Cynghorau Catwn Hywel Fychan
169v-172v Marwolaeth Mair Hywel Fychan
172v-182v Gwyrthiau Mair, incomplete, continues at Cardiff 3.242, page 101 Hywel Fychan
183a a letter addressed to the Reverend Moses Williams ?

The following texts were consulted during the transcription of the manuscript:

  • Cartwright, Jane. ed. Transcriptions of Buched Mair and Buched Martha.
  • Daniel, R. Iestyn. ed. 1995. Ymborth yr Enaid. Cardiff: University of Wales Press
  • Evans, D. Simon. ed. 1959. Buched Dewi. Cardiff: University of Wales Press
  • Förster, Max. ed. 1921. Das älteste kymrische Traumbuch. ZCP 13. 55-92.
  • Heist, W. H. ed. 1944. Welsh Prose Versions of the Fifteen Signs before Doomsday. Speculum 19. 421-32
  • Jones, Gwenan. ed. 1938, 1939. Gwyrthyeu y Wynvydedic Veir. BBCS 9. 144-8, 334-41; 10. 21-3.
  • Jones, John Morris and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1894. Hystoria Lucidar. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr Agkyr Llandewivrevi. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 3-76.
  • Jones, John Morris and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1894. Hystoria o Uuched Dewi. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr Agkyr Llandewivrevi. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 105-118
  • Jones, John Morris and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1894. Credo Seint Athanasius. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr Agkyr Llandewivrevi. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 138-40
  • Jones, John Morris and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1894. Pwyll y Pader o dull Hu Sant. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr Agkyr Llandewivrevi. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 147-51
  • Jones, John Morris and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1894. Rinwedeu Gwaranndaw Offeren. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr Agkyr Llandewivrevi, Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 151
  • Jones, John Morris and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1894. Breudwyt Pawl Ebostol. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr Agkyr Llandewivrevi. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 152-6
  • Jones, John Morris and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1894. Am Gadw Dyw Sul. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr Agkyr Llandewivrevi. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 157-9
  • Jones, John Morris and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1894. Rybud Gabreil at Veir. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr Agkyr Llandewivrevi, Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 159
  • Jones, John Morris and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1894. Y Drindawt yn vn Duw. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr Agkyr Llandewivrevi. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 162-3
  • Richards, Melville. ed. 1937. Ystoria Bilatus. BBCS 9. 42-47.
  • Williams, Ifor. ed. 1923. Cynghorau Catwn. BBCS 2. 16-36.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1938. Ystoria Titus Aspassianus. BBCS 9. 42-9, 221-30.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1949. Ystorya Adaf ac Eva y Wreic. NLWJ 6. 170-5.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1952. Efengyl Nicodemus. BBCS 14. 257-273.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1959. Transitus Beatae Mariae a thestunau cyffelyb. BBCS 18. 131-57.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1962. L’Enfant Sage ac Adrian ac Epictitus yn Gymraeg. BBCS 19. 259-295.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1973. Buchedd Catrin Sant. BBCS 25. 247-68.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1976. Welsh Versions of Purgatorium S. Patricii. Studia Celtica 8/9. 119-94.
  • Williams, Mary. ed. 1912. Llyma Vabinogi Iessu Grist. Revue Celtique 33. 184-207.
  • Williams, Robert. ed. 1892. Y Groglith. Selections from the Hengwrt MSS. London: T. Richards. 250-66.
  • Williams, Robert. ed. 1892. Hanes Pontius Pilatus. Selections from the Hengwrt MSS. London: T. Richards. 267-71.
  • Wordsworth, C. ed. 1920. Horae Eboracenses, the Prymer or Hours of the Blessed Virgin Mary according to the use of the illustrious church of York, with other devotions as they were used by the lay-folk in the Northern province in the XVth and XVIth centuries. Durham: The [Surtees] Society.

Supplied text in the present edition is drawn from the above publications.

Foliation is found in the top centre margin of each recto page.

Catchwords are occasionally found in the bottom right hand corner of the page. Others may have been cut out during binding. All catchwords are in Hywel Fychan's hand unless otherwise noted. Examples may be seen at pages 10v: ledigyon; 20v: ennwyred; 30v: yỽ; 40v: rubin; 50v: gallon; 60v: duỽ; 70v: hynny; 80v: o achaỽs; 90v: a gymerth; 100v: ac yn; 110v: a phan; 120v: ath; 130v: theỽnos; 137v: blodeu; 166v: dielỽ; 176v: a beris

The manuscript is in good condition, although there are several pages missing between folios 130 and 131, and one folio missing between folios 146 and 147.

Two quires containing the text Ystoria Lucidar which should go between folios 20 and 21 became separated from the manuscript at some point and now form Peniarth 12.

The last quire of the manuscript became separated from it at some point and is now bound with Cardiff 3.242, where it forms pages 101-112 of that manuscript.

The text is written in a single column of between 25 and 27 lines to each page.

The manuscript is written in the late-fourteenth-century rounded textura hand of Hywel Fychan. Hywel was also responsible for penning Peniarth 11 which contains a copy of Ystoriau Saint Greal, Philadelphia 8680 which contains a copy of Ystoria Dared and Brut y Brenhinoedd, Oxford Jesus College 57 which contains a copy of Llyfr Blegywryd, parts of the Red Book of Hergest (Oxford Jesus College 111), and the other manuscripts which comprise the Red Book of Talgarth (folios 39-58 of Peniarth 12 and pages 101-112 of Cardiff 3.242). A different contemporary hand appears on pages 58r-59v and 156r-156v. This scribe has been designated 'Llanstephan 27 hand B' for the purposes of this transcription.
‘Hywel Fychan’

Though words are separated by clearly distinguishable spaces throughout most of the manuscript, in some places it is not clear whether items are to be taken to represent one word or two.

Hywel Fychan uses both regular and medial <a>. The medial variant often serves almost as a capital and is commonly found at the beginning of names and clauses.

The difference between some of the capitals and small forms can be slight. This is especially so when the capital is simply a slightly larger version of the small form. Examples of such capitals are:

  • <FF> 114r.22
  • <V> 26v.4, 42r.6, 114v.27, 136v.8
  • <W> 23r.17, 136r.12

Hywel Fychan's orthography does not appear to differ substantially from expected forms.

‘Llanstephan 27 hand B’

Hand B is characterised by the use of medial <a> within words rather than just at the beginning of phrases and sentences.

The orthography undergoes a marked change on these pages as well.

The text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms.

  • macron for <n>: a[n]geu 24v.13; uadle[n] 135v.21; gallo[n] 33r.20; hunei[n] 25r.27; perso[n] 33r.22
  • macron for <m>: a[m]genn 33r.13; ky[m]meint 34v.15; ky[m]merassant 24v.8; vam[m] 116r.24
  • <a> above a letter for <ra>: 134r.2
  • <i> above a letter for <ri>: c[ri]st 40r.1, 43r.17; p[ri]aỽt 70r.27; p[ri]odas 108v.8; p[ri]or 141r.15, 141r.21, etc.
  • <9> for <ur>: gỽneuth[ur] 24v.5, 58v.25, 96r.23, etc.; oruth[ur] 59v.14
  • <9> for <us>: dosparth[us] 42r.14; nichodem[us] ; pilat[us] 105r.13, 112v.22
  • <2> for <er>: amh[er]aỽdyr 61v.18; kamsyb[er]wyt 59v.11; b[er]ued 59v.19; gỽen[er] 62r.9, 62r.15, 62r.16, etc.; p[re]ssennaỽl 58v.9
  • <2> for <re>: p[re]gethu 63v.12, 134v.8
  • <2> for <ry>: p[ry]dein 69v.23; ymp[ry]awd 59v.27; ysp[ry]t 59v.24
  • <2> for <yr>: amheraỽd[yr] 61r.24, 61v.11, 62v.10, etc.; aruth[yr] 275v.22
  • <p> with a tail for <pro>: p[ro]uedigaeth 59v.17

Hywel also abbreviates certain commonly occuring names and words:

  • <ar[wydockaa]>: 154r.3, 154r.15
  • <arỽyd[ockaa]>: 153v.9, 153v.13
  • <arỽydoc[kaa]>: 153v.24
  • <arỽydock[aa]>: 153v.11, etc.
  • <c>: [cant] 59v.22, 59v.23
  • <d[auy]d>: 23r.13, 111r.2, 120r.3, etc.
  • <Eu[a]>: 59v.14
  • <uadl[en]>: 132v.19, 134r.10, 134r.27, etc.
  • <.g.d.>: g[eir] d[edyf] 44v.20, 44v.24, 45r.7, etc.
  • <m>: [mil] 59v.23
  • <o[mega]>: 31v.1
  • <orc>: or[uc] 112v.22
  • <[et]>: 31v.1
  • <.pech. Mar.>: pech[awt] Mar[wawl] 45v.6, 45v.21
  • <.p. M.>: p[echawt] m[arwawl] 45v.10, 45v.15, 46r.4, etc.
  • <R.>: <R[inwed]> 46r.22, 46v.1, 46v.11, etc.

Punctuation consists of the punctus and the punctus elevatus.

In some places it is clear that the scribe has skipped from one line to another because the same word appears in successive lines. Modern published editions of the text from other sources make apparent the aberrant reading in this manuscript. There is an example at:

Location Manuscript reading Edition
48.26 ỽrth hynny yr yspryt kedernyt hỽnnỽ. a ennynn callon dyn vrth hynny yryd dyỽ yr yspryt kedernyt hỽnnỽ adrychauo yr eneit yny voi kryfuach ydamunho pporth tragyỽydaỽl. Ar yspryt kedernyt hỽnnỽ a enynn callonn dyn... (LlA 149)

The decoration consists in the main of large decorated initials in red ink, as well as lively line-drawings in the bottom margins of some pages. Examples of line-drawings may be seen in the bottom margins at:

  • 29v: hand
  • 41r: hand

In most cases the drawings are associated with catchwords. Examples may be seen at:

  • 30v: hand
  • 40v: dog
  • 50v: dog
  • 60v: dog
  • 70v: hand
  • 80v: hand
  • 90v: bird's head?
  • 100v: hand
  • 130v: dog
  • 137v: two hands
  • 166v: dog
  • 176v: dog

In some places the scribe or decorator has drawn pictures – generally of fish or human faces – into the decorated letters found at the tops of lines. An example is the <P> (fish) at 116v.1.

In some places the rubricator has neglected to add a <M> for Magister to the text of the Elucidarium and a space shows where this should be. An example may be seen at 3v.2.

There are some marginalia in later hands in the manuscript which have not been included in the transcription:

  • 1r: TM, RM. 11-12, 14-17, 20-1, BM
  • 1v: LM.2-4, 18-21
  • 2r: RM.1-2, 6-10, 19-22
  • 2v: LM.1, 12-13, 19-20
  • 3r: RM.3-4, 7-9, 21, 23-7
  • 3v: LM.4-5, 27
  • 4r: RM.16
  • 4v: LM.5, 16-17, 20
  • 5r: RM.4, 13-16
  • 5v: LM.9-11
  • 6r: RM.1, 22, 26-7
  • 6v: LM.4, 11-14, 24-5
  • 7r: RM.1-2, 7-9
  • 7v: LM.2, 4-6, 9-12, 16, 21
  • 9r: RM.12-20
  • 9v: LM.14-21
  • 10r: RM.7-8
  • 12r: RM.9
  • 12v: LM.19
  • 13v: LM.27
  • 17r: RM.6
  • 20v: BM
  • 26r: RM.1
  • 26v: LM.21
  • 28v: LM.21
  • 29v: LM.25
  • 33v: LM.5
  • 35r: RM.12
  • 40r: RM.6-7
  • 41v: TM
  • 42r: RM.17
  • 43v: LM.15
  • 44v: LM.8
  • 46r: RM.11
  • 46r: inline.13-14
  • 51r: RM.16
  • 72v: BM
  • 73r: RM.16
  • 81r: RM.2
  • 84v: LM.21
  • 93r: RM.9
  • 102r: RM
  • 102r: LM
  • 102v: RM
  • 102v: LM
  • 106v: LM.19
  • 124r: IL.22
  • 125r: RM
  • 130r: BM
  • 147r: TM
  • 153v
  • 154r
  • 158r inline.15 (modern hand)

Nota marks are to be found in the margins of many pages in the hand of the main scribe. An example may be seen at 20r.1.

Notes in a number of modern hands precede the manuscript and are bound with it:

  • i r: notes including the Shirburn shelf mark (113.E.58) as well as the designation 'Llyfr Coch o Dalgarth' in the hand of Moses Williams
  • i v: blank
  • ii r: note in the hand of J. Gwenogvryn Evans describing the manuscript as a direct transcript of Peniarth 5
  • iii r-iv v: notes on contents in the hand of Moses Williams
  • vi r: Welsh pedigrees in a 14th or 15th-century hand
  • vi v: Welsh prose text in a 15th-century hand
  • vii r: two Latin prayers in a 15th-century hand
  • vii v-viii r: poetry by Dafydd ap Gwilym and Ieuan Tew Brydydd in a 15th-century hand
  • ix v: Welsh prose text in an anglicana hand
  • 183a: a letter addressed to the Reverend Moses Williams

The manuscript was produced at the end of the fourteenth or the beginning of the fifteenth century in Wales (Huws 2000: 60).

D. Simon Evans (1959: xxxvi) suggested that Llanstephan 27 and Oxford Jesus College 111 (The Red Book of Hergest) were both written by Hywel Fychan at the behest of Hopcyn ap Tomas. Hywel Fychan is known to have produced manuscripts for Hopcyn ap Tomas, as his colophon in Philadelphia 8680 attests: 'y llyuyr hwnn a yscriuennwys howel vychan uab howel goch o uuellt yn llwyr onys gwnaeth agkof adaw geir neu lythyren. o arch a gorchymun y vaester nyt amgen Hopkyn uab thomas uab einawn'. Evans argued that the contents of this manuscript, which comprise religious texts on the whole, complement those of the Red Book of Hergest (Oxford Jesus College 111), which is notable for its lack of this type of material. Evans also refers to the awdl addressed to Hopcyn ap Tomas by Dafydd y Coed which states that there was a copy of 'the Lucidarius' in Hopcyn ap Tomas's court: 'Mwnei law mae yn y lys/ Eurdar y Lucidarius/ A'r Greal ar Ynyales/ A grym pob kyfreith ae gras' (quoted by James 1993: 17). An awdl by Ieuan Llwyd makes a similar claim: 'Dysgawd lyvreu loewvreint dawnus/ Lucidarius lwys y daered (quoted in James 17).

As there are references to Rhys ap Tomas ab Einawn in the manuscript, Brynley Roberts (1967) proposed that rather than having been commissioned by Hopcyn ap Tomas in particular, the manuscript was commissioned by Hopcyn's family to whom there are references in five Latin prayers on pages 152v and 153r of the manuscript:

  • 152v.5-7: salua me rys uab thoma uab einyaỽn. {et} defende ab o{mn}ib{us} adu{er}sitatibis meis.
  • 152v.13-14: Et cum assistant huic famulo tuo rys uab thomas duodecim ap{osto}li d{omin}ni n{ost}ri ih{es}u {christi}.
  • 152v.17-19: vt defendant eum rys hoc breue portantem. abomi{n}bus insidiis dyaboli.
  • 153r-3-4: filius dei uiui me famillum tuu{m} rys uab thomas. benedicat. {et} o{mn}i malo defendat.
  • 153r.20-23: Tu domine p{er} has sanctissimas penas tuas. a penis inferni. {et} aboni{n]ib{us} temptacionib{us} dyaboli me rys uab thomas {et} om{n}es parentes meos {et} amicos {et} benefactores meos.

Roberts (1967: 224) suggests that Rhys ap Tomas ab Einiawn was a brother of Hopcyn ap Tomas ab Einiawn of Ynysdawy, who commissioned Hywel Fychan and his collaborators to write the Red Book of Hergest. The same Rhys ap Tomas ab Einawn could have been responsible for commissioning the translation of Ffordd y Brawd Odrig.

At some point three quires became detached from this manuscript and were re-bound with other others. Two quires from Ystoria Lucidar were bound with Peniarth 12, the other texts of which were probably written around it in order to produce a complete text of the Elucidarium (O'Rourke 2003). A third quire was bound at the end of Cardiff 3.242, which contains medical material, probably because of a perceived similarity in the hands of the two scribes rather than for any textual reason.

This manuscript formed part of a collection brought together by the copyist Samuel Williams (c.1660-c.1722) and his son Moses Williams (1685-1742), along with the other Llanstephan manuscripts (numbers 1-154). Upon Moses Williams's death in 1742, his Welsh manuscripts were sold to the mathematician William Jones. Jones in turn bequeathed these manuscripts to his pupil, the second earl of Macclesfield, upon his death in 1749 (Bywgraffiadur 491).

Llanstephan 27 remained in the possession of the earls of Macclesfield at Shirburn castle until 1899 when it was bought by Sir John Williams. Along with the rest of his vast collections it was donated by Sir John to the National Library of Wales in 1909.

Information on the dating and hand of this manuscript is based on the following authorities:

  • Evans, D. Simon. 1959. Buched Dewi. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
  • Evans, J. Gwenogvryn. 1898-1910. Llanstephan 27. Report on Manuscripts in the Welsh Language 2. London: HMSO. 455-62.
  • Huws, Daniel. 2000. Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff and Aberystwyth: University of Wales Press and the National Library of Wales.
  • Huws, Daniel. A Repertory of Welsh Manuscripts and Scribes. draft.
  • James, Christine. 1993. 'Llwyr Wybodau, Llên a Llyfrau': Hopcyn ap Tomas a'r Traddodiad Llenyddol Cymraeg. Hywel Teifi Edwards. ed. Cwm Tawe. Llandysul: Gwasg Gomer. 4-44.
  • Jenkins, Richard Thomas. ed. 1953. Dictionary of Welsh Biography down to 1940. London: Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion.
  • Morgan, Prys. 1978. Glamorgan and the Red Book. Morgannwg 22. 42-60.
  • O'Rourke, Jason. 2003. English and Latin texts in Welsh contexts: Reflections of a Multilingual Society in National Library of Wales MS. Peniarth 12. Yearbook of English Studies 33. 53-63.
  • Roberts, Brynley. 1967. Un o lawysgrifau Hopcyn ab Tomas o Ynys Dawe. BBCS 22. 223-227.

The Welsh Prose 1350-1425 website is the product of an AHRC funded research project undertaken by staff at the School of Welsh, Cardiff University from 2004 through 2007 called Corff Electronig o Ryddiaith Cymraeg Canol. The aim of this project was to produce machine-readable editions of all the medieval Welsh prose texts which have been preserved in manuscripts dating from c.1350 to c.1425.

The project is a continuation and a development of two previous projects funded by the University of Wales which transcribed the Welsh prose in manuscripts dated to c.1250-c.1350.

The intention is to give scholars access not only to texts that have hitherto remained unedited but also to the different versions of texts that have been the subject of critical editions.

Certain decorative features have been encoded: these may trigger further study of the original manuscripts. Primarily, however, the resource provides detail which it is hoped will further the study of the language and literature of the period.

In producing this edition, we have attempted to fulfil two different and often non-complementary if not opposing goals: to present a minimally edited edition of the text, and to represent as many visual features of the manuscript as possible.

Visual features of the text such as layout, and rubrication may prove to be as essential in textual interpretation as features such as punctuation, letter forms, capitalisation and word division, which are more usually invoked by scholars in the field.

The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his audience, or patron used it. Where the scribe's orthography seems to merit particular attention, an editorial gloss has been added to indicate what we believe to have been the target form.

In some places, especially where the manuscript is damaged, we have supplied text. This serves the two-fold purpose of presenting a complete text and, perhaps more importantly, of indicating the size of the damaged area.

In order to make editorial intervention as transparent as possible, supplied text is clearly marked off from the manuscript text by a different font. Also in the spirit of editorial transparency, we have wherever possible used published editions for supplied text. Text supplied from published editions may suffer from obvious errors or significant differences in orthography from the manuscript text. We have refrained from imposing our own editorial actions on such features.

The transcription of this manuscript, as well as the information in this TEI header is based on the microfilm reproduction of the manuscript produced by the National Library of Wales in 1993. As the editors have not checked the transcription against the original, information on the scribal hands, foliation, accompanying materials, colour scheme and ornamentation should be treated as provisional.

  • 25-Feb-2011 DL: edited TEI header
  • 15-Aug-2007 PWT: edited TEI header
  • 14-Feb-2007 – 19-Feb-2007 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
  • 27-Oct-2006 DL: converted Word files with shortcuts into XML files and corrected them
  • 3-Jan-2006 – 6-Feb-2006 DL: corrected electronic transcription of folios 84v-161v, 164r-182v
  • 19-Dec-2005 – 2-Feb-2006 DMS: corrected electronic transcription of folios 1r-84r
  • 16-Dec-2005 – 3-Feb-2006 DMS: checked DL's transcript of folios 84v-161v, 164r-182v against prints
  • 15-Dec-2005 – 1-Feb-2006 DL: checked DMS's transcript of folios 1r-84r against prints
  • 13-Dec-2005 – 31-Jan-2006 DL: transcribed folios 84v-161v, 164r-182v with shortcuts
  • 14-Dec-2005 – 31-Jan-2006 DMS: transcribed folios 1r-84r with shortcuts

The material has been transcribed separately.