Breudwd Rhyddiaith Gymraeg 1300-1425

Pennyn y Fenter Amgodio Testunau (TEI) ar gyfer LlGC Llsgr. Peniarth 5 (Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch, rhan 1)

: 'Peniarth 5: Electronic Edition' TEI Header

: Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2AE 0117 987 6500

Principal Investigator: Peter Wynn Thomas

Transcribed and encoded by D. Mark Smith

Transcribed and encoded by Diana Luft

School of Welsh, Cardiff University Cardiff 2013

  • : Aberystwyth
  • : National Library of Wales
  • : Peniarth 5
  • : Hengwrt 5
  • : The White Book of Rhydderch

NLW Peniarth 5 forms the first part of the White Book of Rhydderch. The first 51 folios contain a collection of religious texts in a single column of text in the hand of one scribe (White Book Scribe A). Folios 58-152 are written in two columns of text and contain a copy of the religious text Purdan Padrig, and a collection of texts dealing with the exploits of Charlemagne in the hand of the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi, as well as the romance of Bown de Hamtwn in the hand of a third scribe (White Book Scribe C).

Page Column Contents Hand
1r-1v blank
2r-4r Delw'r Byd White Book hand A
4r-6r Ystoria Adda White Book hand A
6r-8r Y Groglith White Book hand A
8r-10r Elen a'r Grog White Book hand A
10r-11r Ystoria Bilatus White Book hand A
11r-11v Ystoria Judas White Book hand A
11v Pymtheng Arwydd cyn Dydd Brawd, not transcribed White Book hand A
12r-14v Proffwydoliaeth Sibli Ddoeth White Book hand A
14r-20r Mabinogi Iesu Grist White Book hand A
20v-21v Pa ddelw y dylai dyn gredu i Dduw White Book hand A
21v-23r Buchedd Catrin White Book hand A
23v-26r Buchedd Fargred White Book hand A
26r-26v Buchedd Mair Fadlen; not transcribed White Book hand A
27r-27v blank
one folio missing
28r Buchedd Mair Fadlen; not transcribed White Book hand A
28r-28v Buchedd Mair o'r Aifft; not transcribed White Book hand A
28v-29v Ystoria Adda ac Efa White Book hand A
29v-30r Disgynyddion Adda; not transcribed White Book hand A
30r-36v Efengyl Nicodemus White Book hand A
36v-38r Ystoria Titus White Book hand A
38r-40r Marwolaeth Mair White Book hand A
40v-45r Gwyrthiau Mair; not transcribed White Book hand A
45v Gwyrthiau Edmund; not transcribed White Book hand A
46r-46v folio missing
47r-48r Gwyrthiau Edmund; not transcribed White Book hand A
48v-49v Credo Athanasius White Book hand A
49v Y Rhagorau a geiff; not transcribed White Book hand A
49v Fel y dylai dyn tra wrando offeren; not transcribed White Book hand A
49v Enwau y Pedwar Hynaif ar Hugain; not transcribed White Book hand A
49v Gorchestion White Book hand A
50r Fel y rhannwyd yr Ebestyl White Book hand A
50r Gwaeau; not transcribed White Book hand A
50v Amrysson ath gyffelyp; not transcribed White Book hand A
50v Efengyl Ieuan White Book hand A
51r-51v This folio originally contained text but has mostly been ripped out of the manuscript. White Book hand A
52r-57v blank
58r-65r 1-30 Purdan Padrig X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
65v blank
66r-78v 31-81 Ystoria Carolo Magno: Chronicl Turpin X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
78v-89v 81-126 Ystoria Carolo Magno: Rhamant Otfel, incomplete X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
90r-90v blank
91r-99v 127-161 Ystoria Carolo Magno: Pererindod Siarlymaen X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
99v-118v 161-238 Ystoria Carolo Magno: Cân Rolant X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)
119r-152r 239-372 Ystoria Bown de Hamtwn White Book hand C

The following texts were consulted during transcription:

  • Byfield, C. E. and Bayliss, M. eds. 1996. Y Gorcheston: The Welsh Ioca Monachorum, Texts, Translations and Commentary. Studia Celtica 30. 197-222.
  • Lewis, Henry. ed. 1930. Credo Athanasius Sant. BBCS 5. 193-203.
  • Lewis, Henry and Diverres, Pol. eds. 1928. Delw y Byd (Imago Mundi). Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
  • Jenkins, J. ed. 1920. Medieval Welsh Scriptures, Religious Legends and Midrash. THSC. 121-9.
  • Rejhon, Annalee C. ed. 1983. Cân Rolant: The Medieval Welsh Version of the Song of Roland. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Richards, Melville. ed. 1939, 1948. Buched Fargred. BBCS 9. 324-34; 10. 53-9; 13. 65-71.
  • Richards, Melville. ed. 1937. Ystoria Bilatus. BBCS, 9 (1937): 42-47.
  • Watkin, Morgan. ed. 1958. Ystorya Bown de Hamtwn. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
  • Williams, Mary. ed. 1912. Llyma Vabinogi Iessu Grist. Revue Celtique 33. 184-207.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1973. Buchedd Catrin Sant. BBCS 25. 247-68.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1949. Ystorya Adaf ac Eva y Wreic. NLWJ 6. 170-5.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1952. Efengyl Nicodemus. BBCS 14. 257-273.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1974. Welsh Versions of Purgatorium S. Patricii. Studia Celtica 8/9. 119-94.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1938. Ystoria Titus Aspassianus. BBCS 9. 42-9, 221-30.
  • Williams, J. E. Caerwyn. ed. 1959. Transitus Beatae Mariae a thestunau cyffelyb. BBCS 18. 131-57.
  • Williams, Stephen J. ed. 1968. Ystorya de Carolo Magno. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

There are four systems of foliation in the manuscript, of differing dates and contradictory in nature.

  • The earliest system of foliation is that found in black ink, in roman numerals in the centre of the upper margin of the recto pages. Daniel Huws (2000: 228) dates these numerals to the fifteenth century. Many of these numerals are difficult or impossible to see, the ink having flaked off and the pages having been cropped by binders.
  • Robert Vaughan is responsible for adding the page numbers that appear in brown ink in the top centre margin of each recto page. These have been corrected by J. Gwenogvryn Evans beginning at folio 54r. These agree to a large extent with Huws’s foliation, diverging at folio 63r.
  • A third system of foliation in black ink, in roman numerals, appears in the top right corner of each recto page. The numbering skips from folio 65 (at the present-day folio 65) to 85 (at the present day folio 66).
  • Daniel Huws’s 1990 foliation, also that used for the digital facsimile produced by the National Library of Wales and available on their website at, appears in pencil in the top right corner of each recto page.

We have followed Daniel Huws's 1990 foliation and have also numbered the columns.

The manuscript is in good condition and legible throughout except for the first few pages which are considerably stained. Legibility of this section is further impaired by the small size of the script at this point.

There is one folio missing between folios 27 and 28.

Folio 46 is missing.

Folio 51 has mostly been ripped out of the manuscript, with only a small amount of the leaf attached to the binding.

Most of folio 153 is missing.

Folios 1 to 51 are written in a single column of text with between 46 and 49 lines to the page. From folio 58 onwards the text is written in two columns with between 30 and 42 lines to the page.

This manuscript is written in three distinct hands. Hand A is responsible for writing folios 1-51. Because of the religious nature of the texts it contains, and the difference in layout between it and the rest of the manuscript, Daniel Huws (2000: 253) suggests that this section was not originally intended to form part of the manuscript. The second scribe is known as the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi. This scribe was given the designation X90 by Daniel Huws, and this designation is followed for the purposes of this edition. The Anchorite's hand appears in four further manuscripts including Oxford, Jesus College MS. 119, the manuscript which bears his name ('Book of the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi'), which contains a collection of religious texts, NLW MS. Peniarth 18 which contains a copy of Brut y Tywysogion, NLW MS. Peniarth 46 which contains a copy of Brut y Brenhinoedd, and NLW MS. Peniarth 47 part i which contains a copy of Ystoria Dared. Hand C is responsible for writing folios 119-152, which contain a copy of Ystoria Bown de Hamtwn.

The Anchorite uses both a regular and a medial <a>. The medial <a> often serves almost as a capital and is commonly found at the beginning of clauses and names.

The difference between some of the capitals and semi-caps may be slight. This is especially so when the capital is simply a slightly larger version of the small form. Examples of such semi-capitals are:

  • <FF>: 66v.34.7
  • <V>: 67v.37.5, 74v.66.25, 74v.66.35, 77r.76.1
  • <W>: 70r.50.23

The text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms. Expansions are denoted visually. Examples are:

  • macron above the preceding character for <n>, e.g. aigola[n]t 68v.41.27; amge[n] 69.43.13; a[n]t 66v.34.20; bli[n]der 66r.31.30; etc.
  • <9> for <us>, e.g. amgeled[us] 73v.62.22; calini[us] 67r.36.31; Karol[us] 67r.36.30; Clodone[us] 67r.36.28; Dagobert[us] 67r.36.29; etc.
  • <9> for <ur>, e.g. t[ur]pin 67r.35.36; gỽneuth[ur] 75r.67.3, 84v.106.5, 118r.235.23; aỽd[ur] 78v.81.26; ymỽneuth[ur] 102v.173.32;
  • <a> above a letter for <ra>, e.g. t[ra]gyỽyd 112v.213.27
  • <e> above a letter for <re>, e.g. dac[re]uaỽl 113v.218.24-5; t[re]f 68v.41.14
  • <i> above a letter for <ri>, e.g. c[ri]st 62r.17.19, 67v.38.3, 69v.46.11; c[ri]stonogyon 68r.39.4; p[ri]odolder 74v.66.4; t[ri] 74v.66.27; etc.
  • <p> with a cross through the tail for <per>, e.g. p[er]igyl 68r.40.36; p[er]son 74v.65.29, 74v.66.1, 74v.66.4, 74v.66.26
  • <p> with a cross through the tail for <par>, e.g. Anosp[ar]thus 104v.181.26; ysp[ar]dun 83v.102.23
  • <’> for <re>, e.g. p[re]gethaf 74v.65.35; p[re]ladyeit 70r.75.1; p[re]ssỽyla6 76v.74.26
  • <’> for <ry>, e.g. p[ry]nnỽyt 92r.131.3; p[ry]t 74r.64.20
  • <’> for <er>, e.g. Dgob[er]t[us] 67r.36.29; ams[er] 76r.71.22; gỽallt[er] 79r.84.1, 79r.84.9, 81r.92.6, 91v.130.19, 107r.191.31; oliu[er] 108v.198.13
  • <’> for <yr>, e.g. amheraỽd[yr] 78r.79.8; brỽyd[yr] 108r.196.36, 111r.208.25; cled[yr] 87r.117.14; fenest[yr] 83v.102.1

The following abbreviations occur once each:

  • <con> for <deacon> 66r.31.5
  • <ώ> for <omega> 113v.218.34

Punctuation consists of the punctus and the punctus elevatus.

In one place it is clear that the scribe has skipped from one line to another due to the appearance of the same word in successive lines. Modern published editions of the text from other sources make apparent the aberrant reading in this manuscript. These examples may be seen at:

Location Manuscript reading Edition
74v.66.35-6 Val hynny y mae duỽ yn vn ac yn t[ri]. Ny ỽn .i. hagen heb y caỽr pa furyf y genis y tat y mab "Val hynny y mae Duw yn vn ac yn dri." "Mi a dyallaf" heb y Fferracut, "bot Duw weithon yn vn ac yn dri. Ny wn, haven. pa furyf y genis y Tat Mab…" (YCM 29-30)
‘White Book hand C’

Like the Anchorite, scribe C uses both regular and medial <a>. The medial <a> often serves almost as a capital, and is commonly found at the beginning of names and clauses.

Scribe C’s text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms. Expansions are denoted visually. Examples are:

  • macron above preceding character for <n>, e.g. bro[n]n 120r.243.26, 121r.247.34; dia[n]not 120r.244.27; vli[n]ger 120v.246.2 etc.
  • macron above preceding character for <m>, e.g. a[m]mỽs 119v.242.15; arna[m] 140v.325.22; ky[m]mer 120r.244.31; vy[m] 140r.343.15
  • <a> above a letter for <ra>, e.g. amonst[ra]i: 135r.304.13, 135r.304.30
  • <i> above a letter for <ri>, e.g. p[ri]odas 120r.244.34

The scribe also abbreviates the following commonly occurring personal name:

  • b[own] 140r.323.16, 140v.326.14, 141r.327.24, etc.

Punctuation consists of the punctus and the punctus elevatus.

Crosses in the left margin at 121v.13 to the word <foynt> at 121v.14 probably indicate that the underlined text in these lines is meant to be deleted.

The decoration consists in the main of large decorated initials in red ink.

There is a hand in the right margin of page 75r the pointing to the second line of column 68.

In many places where there are coloured initial letters, the scribe has indicated what the letter should be by means of a smaller letter which appears behind the initial. Examples may be seen at 78v.81.34 and 78v.82.33.

There are some marginalia in later hands in the manuscript which have not been included in the transcription.

Reader's marks are to be found at 77r RM.30 and 77v LM.33.

The present binding was completed in 1940 by the staff of the National Library of Wales bindery.

The manuscript dates from the middle of the fourteenth century (Evans 1898-1910: 305-6, Huws 2000). It was originally produced as the first half of a larger collection, known as the White Book of Rhydderch, of which NLW Peniarth 4 forms the second part. Daniel Huws (2000: 228) argues that the manuscript was probably written for Rhydderch ab Ieuan Llwyd of Parc Rhydderch, Llangeitho after whom it is named. He suggests that the manuscript was copied at Strata Florida or by monks such as the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi who were associated with that abbey.

Huws (2000: 253) conjectures that although the White Book of Rhydderch itself, that is NLW Peniarth 4 and NLW Peniarth 5, was planned and executed as a complete work, the first four quires of NLW Peniarth 5 (folios 1-57) may not originally have been intended for inclusion in this collection. He cites differences in text and layout to infer that this section of the manuscript was written for the use of a cleric rather than for a lay patron, and suggests that they were added to the manuscript 'as an afterthought' (Huws 2000: 254).

Huws (2000: 249) identifies Rhydderch ab Ieuan (d.1398/9) as the father of the poet Ieuan ap Rhydderch, a descendant of the Lord Rhys, the patron of Strata Florida abbey, and a relative of Gruffudd ap Maredudd ab Owein, who commissioned Madog ap Selyf to translate Marwolaeth Mair and Ystoria Carolo Magno: Cronicl Turpin.

A mock elegy of Rhydderch by Dafydd ap Gwilym survives, written in the voice of his friend Llywelyn Fychan. An awdl was written to the same two men by Llywelyn Goch ap Meurig Hen. Dafydd Johnston has argued on the strength of the description of Rhydderch and Llywelyn that they were employed in the king’s service, though Huws (2000: 250) postulates that they could also have been employed at an earlier date as interpreters with the English army. Rhydderch’s hospitality is praised by Iolo Goch, Dafydd y Coed and Gruffudd Llwyd (Huws 2000: 251).

Daniel Huws (2000: 258) argues that the White Book of Rhydderch, both NLW Peniarth 4 and NLW Peniarth 5, remained with the descendants of Rhydderch ap Ieuan until the sixteenth century, when it passed into the hands of the 'north Wales antiquaries'. Huws demonstrates that Quire 22, which came to be bound with NLW Peniarth 12, had already become detached from the rest of the manuscript by the time it started on its wanderings. The manuscript was used by Richard Langford in 1573, by Roger Morris of Coed y Talwrn, and by Thomas Wiliems of Trefriw in 1594, and had been owned by Jaspar Gryffyth (d.1614) (Huws 2000: 260). In 1634 it was in the hands of John Jones of Gellilyfdy when Dr John Davies of Mallwyd produced a description of it along with a list of its contents; this is now in NLW NLW 4973B (Huws 2000: 261). Davies’s description of the contents does not differ substantially from the present-day contents of the manuscript: any missing folios had already gone missing by the early seventeenth century (Huws 2000: 259).

Many of the manuscripts, including the White Book, which were owned by John Jones of Gellilyfdy came into the possession of Robert Vaughan Hengwrt (1592-1667) after Jones's death in 1658. It was catalogued in Vaughan’s library as Hengwrt 5. According to Huws (2000: 261) it is likely that Vaughan had the manuscript re-bound, as he did with many of the books in his possession. Vaughan refers to the manuscript as being in two parts, and may have been responsible for splitting it up in its present form, although this could also have been done before Vaughan acquired it (262). The Hengwrt manuscripts were catalogued in 1658 by William Maurice of Gefnybraich, Llansilin (Jones 1948: xvi).

The manuscript was bequeathed by Sir Robert Williames Vaughan (d. 1859), the last baronet of Hengwrt, to his friend William Watkin Edward Wynne (1801-1880) of Peniarth, along with the rest of the Hengwrt collection (Tibbott 1943: viii). W.W.E. Wynne was responsible for rebinding the manuscript sometime between 1859 and 1869, when he re-united NLW Peniarth 4 and NLW Peniarth 5 and bound them in a single volume in white vellum, although in the wrong order. He also had blank parchment leaves inserted to fill in spaces left from missing quires and folios.

The Hengwrt catalogue was revised by Aneurin Owen (d. 1851), and then by William Watkin Wynne. This catalogue was published in Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1869-1871 (Jones 1948: xv). It was further catalogued and re-numbered by J. Gwenogvryn Evans when he examined the collection for the Historical Manuscripts Commission along with the rest of the Peniarth manuscripts, while they were in the possession of W.W.E. Wynne’s son, William Robert Maurice Wynne (d. 1909).

The Peniarth collection was secured for the nascent National Library of Wales by Sir John Williams who, in 1904, paid the Wynne brothers a sum to ensure the reversion of the collection to the Library upon the death of both brothers. The manuscript passed, along with the rest of the collection, to the Library in 1909 (Tibbott 1943: viii). It was bound in its present form, in two volumes, in 1940 by the staff of the National Library of Wales bindery (Huws 2000: 227).

Information on the dating and hand of this manuscript is based on the following authorities

  • Evans, J. Gwenogvryn. 1898-1910. Peniarth 4. Report on Manuscripts in the Welsh Language. 1. London. HMSO. 305-6.
  • Huws, Daniel. 2000. Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch. Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff and Aberystwyth: University of Wales Press and the National Library of Wales. 227-68.
  • Huws, Daniel. A Repertory of Welsh Manuscripts and Scribes. draft.
  • Jones, E. D. 1943. Old Catalogues of the Hengwrt Manuscripts. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales. xv-xxiii.
  • Jones, Thomas. 1948. Nodiadau Testunol ar Lyfr Gwyn Rhydderch. BBCS 12. 83-6.
  • Tibbot, Gildas. 1943. A Brief History of the Hengwrt-Peniarth Collection. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales: i-xiv.

The Welsh Prose 1350-1425 website is the product of an AHRC funded research project undertaken by staff at the School of Welsh, Cardiff University from 2004 through 2007 called Corff Electronig o Ryddiaith Cymraeg Canol. The aim of this project was to produce machine-readable editions of all the medieval Welsh prose texts which have been preserved in manuscripts dating from c.1350 to c.1425.

The project is a continuation and a development of two previous projects funded by the University of Wales which transcribed the Welsh prose in manuscripts dated to c.1250-c.1350.

The intention is to give scholars access not only to texts that have hitherto remained unedited but also to the different versions of texts that have been the subject of critical editions.

Certain decorative features have been encoded: these may trigger further study of the original manuscripts. Primarily, however, the resource provides detail which it is hoped will further the study of the language and literature of the period.

The microfilm of the text that appears at folios 1-50 of this edition proved exceptionally difficult to read, not least because of staining on the manuscript itself. As resources did not permit our spending a prolonged period at the National Library, it was reluctantly decided to follow the readings found in published editions. Not all the texts have been published, however. The following table records the contents of the manuscript together with the publications which form the basis of the present edition:

Page Text Edition
2r-4r Delw'r Byd Lewis and Diverres (1928).
4r-6r Ystoria Adaf Jenkins (1920).
6r-8r Y Groglith Williams (1892: 250-266).
8r-10r Elen a'r Grog Williams (1892).
10r-11r Ystoria Bilatus Richards (1937).
11r-11v Ystoria Judas Williams (1892: 271-4).
12r-14r Proffwydoliaeth Sibli Ddoeth Williams (1892: 276-284).
14r-20r Mabinogi Iesu Grist Williams (1912).
20v-21v Pa ddelw y dylai dyn gredu i Dduw Williams (1892: 237-242).
21v-23r Buchedd Catrin Williams (1973).
23v-26r Buchedd Fargred Richards (1939, 1948).
28v-30r Ystoria Adda ac Efa Williams (1949).
30r-36v Efengyl Nicodemus Williams (1952).
36v-38r Ystoria Titus Williams (1938).
38r-40r Marwolaeth Mair Williams (1959).
48r-49v Credo Athanasius Lewis (1930).
49v Gorcheston and Fel y rhannwyd yr Ebestyl Byfield, C.E. and M. Bayliss (1996).
50v Efengyl Ieuan Jones (1946).

After typing the texts, line divisions in the manuscript were encoded where visible and wordforms checked as far as was possible; features such as letter types, rubrication, and colour scheme have not been noted. Punctuation, capitalisation, and at times orthography, in this section of our edition thus follow those used by the editors of the published texts, rather than the manuscript. Word division also follows that of a published edition and not that of the manuscript, except in those places where divisions have been in accordance with the word-division practices of the project. Editorial symbols used in the published editions of these texts are encapsulated as follows:

  • text in italics has been encoded as abbreviated text using the <expan> tag
  • text in square brackets has been encoded as supplied using the <supplied> tag

It should be noted, however, that editors do not always define their apparatus, and that we have had to assume that all text in italics in the above editions represents abbreviated text in the manuscript, that all other text is not abbreviated in the manuscript, and that all of the above editions agree on the use of square brackets to indicate supplied text. Information on the origins of the relevant supplied text can be found in some of the editions listed above.

Mary Williams used asterisks in her edition of Mabinogi Iesu Grist to indicate places where her edition differed from that of Robert Williams in his Selection from the Hengwrt Manuscripts. These symbols have been omitted from this transcription.

J.E. Caerwyn Williams also made use of asterisks in his edition of Efengyl Nicodemus though he does not indicate the meaning of these symbols. It would appear, however, that Williams's asterisk indicates a gap in the text where it is either damaged or illegible, and have tagged therefore these instances with the <gap> tag.

In producing this edition, we have attempted to fulfil two different and often non-complementary if not opposing goals: to present a minimally edited edition of the text, and to represent as many visual features of the manuscript as possible.

Visual features of the text such as layout, and rubrication may prove to be as essential in textual interpretation as features such as punctuation, letter forms, capitalisation and word division, which are more usually invoked by scholars in the field.

Most of this TEI header concerns the second part of the manuscript only (folios 58-152) and is based on the microfilm reproduction of the manuscript produced by the National Library of Wales in 1995. As we have not checked the transcription against the original, all information should be treated as provisional. For a full description of this manuscript, see Daniel Huws (2000).

The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his audience, or patron used it. Where the scribe's orthography seems to merit particular attention, an editorial gloss has been added to indicate what we believe to have been the target form.

In some places, especially where the manuscript is damaged, we have supplied text. This serves the two-fold purpose of presenting a complete text and, perhaps more importantly, of indicating the size of the damaged area.

In order to make editorial intervention as transparent as possible, supplied text is clearly marked off from the manuscript text by a different font. Also in the spirit of editorial transparency, we have wherever possible used published editions for supplied text. Text supplied from published editions may suffer from obvious errors or significant differences in orthography from the manuscript text. We have refrained from imposing our own editorial actions on such features.

  • 24-Jan-2011 DL: edited TEI header
  • 13-Aug-2007 PWT: edited TEI header
  • 10-Nov-2006 – 30-Jul-2007 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
  • 1-Jul-2007 – 31-Jul-2007 DL: converted Word files with shortcuts into XML files and corrected them
  • 1-May-2007 – 20-May-2007 DMS: divided lines of Williams (1892) transcription according to the manuscript and added line numbering
  • 1-Apr-2007 – 31-May-2007 DMS: transcribed text from Williams (1892)
  • 1-Nov-2005 – 15-Nov-2005 DL: corrected transcripts of folios 66-90, 99-110, 119-153
  • 1-Nov-2005 – 15-Nov-2004 DMS: corrected transcripts of folios 58-65, 91-99, 111-118
  • 1-Oct-2005 – 31-Oct-2005 DL: checked DMS's transcript of folios 58-65, 91-99, 111-118 against prints
  • 1-Oct-2005 – 31-Oct-2004 DMS: checked DL's transcript of folios 66-90, 99-110, 119-153 against prints
  • 1-Sep-2005 – 30-Sep-2005 DL: transcribed folios 66-90, 99-110, 119-153
  • 1-Sep-2005 – 30-Sep-2005 DMS: transcribed folios 58-65, 91-99, 111-118

The material has been transcribed separately.